Battle of Amstetten, 5 November 1805

Battle of Amstetten, 5 November 1805


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Battle of Amstetten, 5 November 1805

The battle of Amstetten (5 November 1805) was one of a number of rearguard actions fought as General Kutuzov attempted to elude Napoleon in the aftermath of the Austrian surrender at Ulm.

At the start of the War of the Third Coalition Napoleon was faced with a large number of Austrian and Russian armies. His first aim was to destroy at least one of the Austrian armies before the Russians could arrive. His target was the army of General Mack, which had advanced west along the Danube into Bavaria, reaching the city of Ulm. Napoleon managed to march across Germany to the Danube east of Ulm without being discovered. Mack then missed a number of chances to escape, before eventually surrendering to Napoleon on 20 October.

One of the reasons for Mack's failure was that the Russians were further away than he had hoped, but by 20 October the first Russian army, 36,000 men under General Kutuzov, were getting close. On 23 October Kutuzov joined up with 22,000 Austrians at Braunau (half way between Ulm and Vienna), giving him 58,000 men. When he learnt about the disaster at Ulm Kutuzov decided to retreat east along the Danube to the bridges at Mautern and Krems, cross to the north bank and then move towards Olmutz, where he could join up with other Russian armies. Prince Peter Bagration was given command of the rear guard, which consisted of 6,000 infantry and 1,900 cavalry, with a mix of Austrian and Russian troops.

Napoleon sent Murat and Lannes to pursue the retreating Russians. They caught up with them around Enns, on the river of the same name. Bagration fought minor rearguard actions at Altenhofen (just east of Enns and ten miles to the west of Amstetten) and at Oed, two miles to the west of Amstetten, before making a more determined stand close to Amstetten, at a point where the main road ran through thick woods.

Bagration deployed his men in two lines, with the Austrian cavalry in the front line and the Russian troops in the second line. The infantry and cavalry were posted on hills on either side of the road, while the artillery was deployed on the road, where it would have the best line of fire.

Murat was leading the French pursuit. His immediate response was to order the best companies from the 9th and 10th Hussars to charge the Allied lines. This first attack was defeated, although the French artillery prevented the Austrians from a decisive success. Murat was then reinforced by Oudinot's grenadiers, and a second attack was launched. This time the Austrian cavalry was defeated and Bagration's send line was forced back into Amstetten. He asked for reinforcements and Kutuzov sent four infantry regiments, ten cavalry regiments and extra artillery (commanded by General Mikhail Miloradovich). This new force formed the front line, with Bagration's men in the second line.

A fierce battle raged for the rest of the day, with the Russians holding their ground and the French unable to make any significant progress. At 9pm the Allies broke off the battle and under cover of darkness retreated along the same route as the main army. The French had been held up long enough to make sure that the Allies were able to get safely across the Danube (completing the move on 9 November).

Both commanders claimed to have been victorious at Amstetten, with the French believing that they had withstood a determined attack by a much larger force and the Russians believing they had forced a larger French force to retreat. In fact the Russians had the best of the day, and Bagration had successfully performed his rearguard duties.

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Prussia during the French Revolutionary period

In the history of Prussia, the nine years leading up to the decisively catastrophic battle of Jena in 1806 were, geographically speaking, no different from the centuries that had preceded them. As a small state, with unprotected borders, sandwiched between the great powers of France (to the West) and Russia (to the East) and faced with an Austrian sphere of influence to the south, Prussia was always concerned for her existence. Indeed a good exposition of her traditional position in the international concert at the end of the 18th century can be seen the brochure published in 1799 regarding Prussia’s international relations “Über Preussens auswärtige Verhältnisse im Jahre 1799”. ( Quoted in A. Rambaud, L’Allemagne sous Napoléon Ier, p. 60 ) It noted: “The house of Austria should be considered as our natural enemy from a commercial point of view, England is also very much to be feared, given its system of industrial monopoly and maritime tyranny Russia, with her perpetual palace revolutions, is a state without fixed political principles and no weight can be put on alliance with it France with her indefinite expansion, could one day become a threat – but she has had too many enemies to be so up to now. The best position to take has been to let these powers mutually destroy themselves, to strengthen ourselves from their weakness and to gain time to prepare for the future.” And yet, in the years leading up to the battle of Jena, the results of this Prussian policy of neutrality and opportunism were to be remarkably decisive for the shape of Europe subsequently, as has been recently pointed out by Frederick Kagan, (p. 177).

Prussia’s foreign policy as enacted under Frederick William III (accession in 1797) was officially described as neutrality although historians have tended to see this as a more cynical kind of “waiting and seeing”. As the above-cited brochure noted, this policy was problematic but it was not without gain. Throughout this period (1797-1805), the “natural enemy” Austria had lost both territory and influence (notably in the Low Countries, the future members of the Confederation of the Rhine, and in Italy) to France, but the increasing power and size of the latter was forcing Frederick William into a decision as to whether to go with France or against her.
As for the First Consul, his aim had always been to keep Prussia “sweet”. After the peace treaty at Lunéville, Prussia for example was to receive compensation for land lost on the left bank of the Rhine. Indeed the Franco-Prussian indemnity treaty of 23 May 1802 provided Prussia with compensation in the form of (amongst other things) the bishoprics of Paderborn and Hildesheim, Eichsfeld, Erfurt and “straggling … Münster”. ( John Holland Rose, Napoleon, a life, vol. 2, p. 52. ) But this passive position of accepting indemnities (which some historians have seen as land-grabbing) whilst it enhanced Prussia territorially it harmed her in terms of her self-respect, in that Prussia found herself the junior partner, being patronised and protected by Alexander and Napoleon instead of being able patronise and protect her clients. Prussia was seen as no longer defining her own destiny. Even the security of her frontiers was under threat: after the collapse of the Treaty of Amiens in 1803, Hanover was occupied by Mortier and no negotiation could force France to give up this “Prussian” territory. Nor could the French be encouraged to abandon the port of Cuxhaven or to deblockade the Elbe and Weser rivers (key Prussian access to the sea). Given the fait accompli of France directly on her borders, Prussia began timidly to make propositions for the creation of a defensive alliance with Napoleon. But these even these efforts were to be abandoned after Napoleon’s violation of Baden territory and his forced expatriation and execution of the Duc d’Enghien in 1804.


Battle of Amstetten, 5 November 1805 - History

BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR, 21 October 1805


HMS Victory at her moorings in Portsmouth Harbour, 1828



Admiral Nelson's weather column, at the top, approaches the combined French-Spanish fleet as Admiral Collingwood's lee column goes into action. Note: the order of the British ships differs from those in Admiral Collingwood's despatch.




Position of HMS Temeraire at about 3 P.M. at which time "many of the Enemy's Ships having struck their Colours . "



HMS Defence and her prize, the San Ildefenso on the morning of Oct 22nd, 1805. Cadiz, Rota, and wrecked prizes in the distance

THE ever to be lamented Death of Vice-Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, who, in the late Conflict with the Enemy, fell in the Hour of Victory, leaves to me the Duty of informing my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that on the 19th Instant, it was communicated to the Commander in Chief from the Ships watching the Motions of the Enemy, in Cadiz, that the Combined Fleet had put to Sea as they sailed with light Winds westerly, his Lordship concluded their Destination was the Mediterranean, and immediately made all Sail for the Straights' (of Gibraltar) Entrance, with the British Squadron, consisting of Twenty-seven Ships, Three of them Sixty fours, where his Lordship was informed by Captain Blackwood, (whose Vigilance in watching, and giving Notice of the Enemy's Movements, has been highly meritorious) that they had not yet passed the Streights.

On Monday the 21st Instant, at Daylight, when Cape Trafalgar bore E. by S. about Seven Leagues, the Enemy was discovered Six or Seven Miles to the Eastward, the Wind about West, and very light, the Commander in Chief immediately made the Signal for the Fleet to bear up in Two Columns, as they are formed in order of sailing a Mode of Attack his Lordship had previously directed, to avoid the Inconvenience and Delay in forming a Line of Battle in the usual Manner. The Enemy's Line consisted of Thirty-three Ships (of which Eighteen were French and Fifteen Spanish), commanded In Chief by Admiral Villeneuve the Spaniards, under the Direction of Gravina, wore, with their Heads to the Northward, and formed their Line of Battle with great Closeness and Correctness but as the Mode of Attack was unusual, so the Structure of their Line was new - it formed a Crescent convexing to Leeward - so that, in leading down to their Centre, I had both their Van, and Rear, abaft the Beam before the Fire opened, every alternate Ship was about a Cable's Length to Windward of her Second ahead and astern, forming a Kind of double Line, and appeared, when on their Beam, to leave a very little Interval between them and this without crowding their Ships. Admiral Villeneuve was in the Bucentaure in the Centre, and the Prince of Asturias bore Gravina's Flag in the Rear but the French and Spanish Ships were mixed without any apparent Regard to Order of national Squadron.

As the Mode of our Attack had been previously determined on, and communicated to the Flag-Officers, and Captains, few Signals were necessary, and none Were made, except to direct close Order as the Lines bore down.

The Commander in Chief in the Victory led the Weather Column, and the Royal Sovereign, which bore my Flag, the Lee.

The Action began at Twelve o'Clock, by the leading Ships of the Columns breaking through the Enemy's Line, the Commander in Chief (Nelson) about the Tenth Ship from the Van, the Second in Command (Collingwood) about the Twelfth from the Rear, leaving the Van of the Enemy unoccupied the succeeding Ships breaking through, in all Parts, astern of their Leaders, and engaging the Enemy at the Muzzles of their Guns the Conflict was severe the Enemy's Ships were fought with a Gallantry highly honorable to their Officers but the Attack on them was irresistible, and it pleased the Almighty Disposer of all Events to grant His Majesty's Arms a complete and glorious Victory about Three P.M. many of the Enemy's Ships having struck their Colours, their Line gave way Admiral Gravina, with Ten Ships joining their Frigates to Leeward, stood towards Cadiz. The Five headmost Ships in their Van tacked and standing to the Southward, to Windward of the British Line, were engaged, and the Sternmost of them taken the others went off, leaving to His Majesty's Squadron Nineteen Ships of the Line (of which Two are First Rates, the Santissima Trinidad and the Santa Anna,) with Three Flag Officers, viz. Admiral Villeneuve, the Commander in Chief, Don Ignatio Maria D'Aliva, Vice-Admiral, and the Spanish Rear-Admiral Don Baltazar Hidalgo Cisneros.

After such a Victory it may appear unnecessary to enter into Encomiums on the particular Parts taken by the several Commanders the Conclusion says more on the Subject than I have Language to express the Spirit which animated all was the same when all exert themselves zealously in their Country's Service, all deserve that their high Merits should stand recorded and never was high Merit more conspicuous than in the Battle I have described.

The Achille (a French 74), after having surrendered, by some Mismanagement of the. Frenchmen took Fire and blew up Two hundred of her Men were saved by the Tenders.

A Circumstance occurred during the Action, which so strongly marks the invincible Spirit of British Seamen, when engaging the Enemies of their Country, that I cannot resist the Pleasure I have in making it known to their Lordships the Temeraire (pictured left) was boarded by Accident, or Design, by a French Ship on one Side, and a Spaniard on the other the Contest was vigorous, but in the End, the combined Ensigns were torn from the Poop, and the British hoisted in their Places.

Such a Battle could not be fought without sustaining a great Loss of Men. I have not only to lament, in common with the British Navy, and the British Nation, in the Fall of the Commander in Chief, the Loss of a Hero, whose Name will be immortal, and his Memory ever dear to his Country but my Heart is rent with the most poignant Grief for the Death of a Friend, to whom, by many Years Intimacy, and a perfect Knowledge of the Virtues of his Mind, which inspired Ideas superior to the common Race of Men, I was bound by the strongest Ties of Affection a Grief to which even the glorious Occasion in which he fell, does not bring the Consolation which perhaps it ought his Lordship received a Musket Ball in his Left Breast, about the Middle of the Action, and sent an Officer to me immediately with his last Farewell and soon after expired.

I have also to lament the Loss of those excellent Officers Captains Duff of the Mars, and Cooke of the Bellerophon I have yet heard of none others.

I fear the Numbers that have fallen will be found very great when the Returns come to me but it having blown a Gale of Wind ever since the Action, I have not yet had it in my Power to collect any Reports from the Ships.

The Royal Sovereign having lost her Masts, except the tottering Foremast, I called the Euryalus to me, while the Action continued, which Ship lying within Hail, made my Signals, a Service Captain Blackwood performed with great Attention. After the Action, I shifted my Flag to her, that I might more easily communicate my Orders to, and collect the Ships, and towed the Royal Sovereign out to Seaward. The whole Fleet were now in a very perilous Situation, many dismasted all battered in Thirteen Fathom Water, off the Shoals of Trafalgar and when I made the Signal to prepare to anchor, few of the Ships had an Anchor to let go, their Cables being shot but the same good providence which aided us through such a Day preferred us in the Night, by the Wind shifting a few Points, and drifting the Ships off the Land, except Four of the captured dismasted Ships, which are now at Anchor off Trafalgar, and I hope will ride safe until those Gales are over.

Having thus detailed the Proceedings of the Fleet on this Occasion, 1 beg to congratulate their Lordships on a Victory which, I hope, will add a Ray to the Glory of His Majesty's Crown, and be attended with public Benefit to our Country.

The Order in which the Ships of the British Squadron attacked the Combined Fleets, on the 21st of October, 1805:

VAN. Victory. Temeraire. Neptune. Conqueror. Leviathan. Ajax, Orion. Agamemnon, Minotaur, Spartiate, Britannia. Africa.
Euryalus. Sirius. Phoebe. Naiad (frigates) . Pickle Schooner. E'ntreprenante Cutter.

REAR. Royal Sovereign, Mars. Belleisle. Tonnant. Bellerophon. Colossus, Achille. Polyphemus. Revenge. Swiftsure. Defence. Thunderer. Defiance. Prince. Dreadnought.

THE ever to be lamented Death of Lord Viscount Nelson, Duke of Bronte, the Commander in Chief, who fell in the Action of the Twenty-first, in the Arms of Victory, covered with Glory, whose Memory will be ever dear to the British Navy, and the British Nation, whose Zeal for the Honor of his King, and for the Interests of his Country, will be ever held up as a shining Example for a British Seaman, leaves to me a Duty to return my Thanks to the Right Honorable Rear-Admiral, the Captains, Officers, Seamen, and Detachments of Royal Marines serving oh board His Majesty's Squadron now under my Command, for their Conduct on that Day but where can I find Language to express my Sentiments of the Valour and Skill which were displayed by the Officer's, the Seamen, and Marines in the Battle with the Enemy, where every Individual appeared an Hero, on who the Glory of his Country depended the Attack was irresistible, and the Issue of it adds to the Page of Naval Annals a brilliant Instance of what Britons can do, when their King and their Country need their Service.

To the Right Honorable Rear Admiral the Earl of Northesk (pictured left) , to the Captains, Officers, and Seamen, and to the Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Privates of the Royal Marines, I beg to give my sincere and hearty Thanks for their highly meritorious Conduct, both in the Action, and in their Zeal and Activity in bringing the captured Ships out from the perilous Situation in which they were, after their Surrender, among the Shoals of Trafalgar, in boisterous Weather.

And I desire that the respective Captains will be pleased to communicate to the Officers, Seamen, and Royal Marines this public Testimony of my high Approbation of their Conduct, and my Thanks for it.

THE Almighty God, whose Arm is Strength, having of his great Mercy been pleased to crown the Exertion of His Majesty's Fleet with Success, in giving them a complete Victory over their Enemies, on 21st of this Month and that all Praise and Thanksgiving may be offered up to the Throne of Grace for the great Benefits to our Country and to Mankind.

I have thought proper, that as Day should be appointed, of general Humiliation before God, and Thanksgiving for this his merciful Goodness, imploring Forgiveness of Sins, a Continuation of his Divine Mercy, and his constant Aid to us, in the Defence of our Country's Liberties and Laws, without which the utmost Efforts of Man are nought, and direct therefore that be appointed for this holy Purpose.

To the respective Captains and Commanders.

N. B. The Fleet having been dispersed by a Gale of Wind, no Day has yet been able to be appointed for the above Purpose.

IN my Letter of the 22d I detailed to you, for the Information of my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the Proceedings of His Majesty's Squadron on the Day of the Action, and that preceding it, since which I have had a continued Series of Misfortunes, but they are of a Kind that human Prudence could not possibly provide against, or my Skill prevent.

On the 22d in the Morning, a strong southerly Wind blew, with squally Weather, which however did not prevent the Activity of the Officers and Seamen of such Ships as were manageable from getting hold of many of the Prizes (Thirteen or Fourteen), and towing them off to the Westward, where I ordered them to rendezvous round the Royal Sovereign, in Tow by the Neptune: but on the 23d, the Gale increased, and the Sea ran so high, that many of them broke the Tow Rope, and drifted far to Leeward, before they were got hold of again, and some of them taking Advantage in the dark and boisterous Night, got before the Wind, and have perhaps drifted upon the Shore and sunk on the Afternoon of that Day the Remnant of the Combined Fleet, Ten Sail of Ships, who had not been much engaged, stood up to Leeward of my shattered and straggled Charge, as if meaning to attack them, which obliged me to collect a Force out of the least injured Ships, and form to Leeward for their Defence all this retarded the Progress of the Hulks, and the bad Weather continuing, determined me to destroy all the Leeward most that could be cleared of the Men, considering that keeping Possession of the Ships was a Matter of little Consequence compared with the Chance of their falling again into the Hands of the Enemy but even this was an arduous Task in the high Sea which was running.

I hope, however, it has been accomplished to a considerable Extent I entrusted it to skilful Officers, who would spare no Pains to execute what was possible. The Captains of the Prince and Neptune cleared the Trinidad and sunk her. Captain Hope, Bayntun and Malcolm, who joined the Fleet this Moment from Gibraltar, had the Charge of destroying four others. The Redoubtable sunk astern of the Swiftsure while in Tow. The Santa Anna, I have no doubt, is sunk, as her Side was almost entirely beat in and such is the shattered Condition of the Whole of them, that unless the Weather moderates, I doubt whether I shall be able to carry a Ship of them into Port. I hope their Lordships will approve of what I (having only in consideration the Destruction of the Enemy's Fleet) have thought a Measure of absolute Necessity.

I have taken Admiral Villeneuve into this Ship Vice-Admiral Don Aliva is dead. Whenever the Temper of the Weather will permit, and I can spare a Frigate (for there were only Four in the Action with the Fleet, Euryalus, Sirius, Phoebe, and Naiad the Melpomene joined the 22d, and the Eurydice and Scout the 23d) I shall collect the other Flag-Officers, and send them to England with their Flags, if they do not go to the Bottom), to be laid at His Majesty's Feet.

There were Four Thousand Troops embarked, under the Command of General Coutamin, who was taken with Admiral Villeneuve in the Bucentaure.


Prophetstown

By the early 1800s, Tecumseh had settled in Ohio and was a respected leader, war chief and orator. In 1805, his younger brother Lalawethika experienced an alcohol-induced vision and declared his intent to lead Indians on a quest to reclaim their lands and culture. He changed his name to Tenskwatawa and became known as “the Prophet.”

After correctly predicting a solar eclipse in 1806, hordes of Indians from various tribes began following the Prophet. In 1808, Tecumseh and the Prophet moved their growing multi-tribal alliance to Prophetstown, near the Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers in present-day Indiana.


Battle Notes

Austrian Army
• Commander: Von Merveldt
• 4 Command Cards
• Optional 2 Tactician Cards

6 1 1 1 1

French Army
• Commander: de Bierre
• 5 Command Cards
• Optional 4 Tactician Cards
• Move First


STORIES OF DISTINCTION

To be a Marine is to always move forward with tenacity towards the next battle standing in the way of our Nation’s progress, but Marines also have a long lineage of defining moments to look back on, serving as a source of immeasurable inspiration. View some of the stories that make all Marines walk a little taller and prouder.

A LEGACY FORMS

Nov 10, 1775: The Corps is Born – Philadelphia, PA

Captain Samuel Nicholas sets up the first Marine Corps recruiting headquarters at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, PA, looking for "a few good men." The "Few and the Proud" who make up today's ranks are comprised of men and women who have the resolve to fight and win for our Nation's common cause.

Captain Samuel Nicholas sets up the first Marine Corps recruiting headquarters at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, PA, looking for "a few good men." The "Few and the Proud" who make up today's ranks are comprised of men and women who have the resolve to fight and win for our Nation's common cause.

1776: First Amphibious Raid – Fort Nassau

Five companies of Marines carry out the Corps’ first amphibious landing on foreign soil, successfully seizing stockpiles of British gunpowder and munitions.

Five companies of Marines carry out the Corps’ first amphibious landing on foreign soil, successfully seizing stockpiles of British gunpowder and munitions.

1805: The “Leathernecks” Arrive – Battle of Derna

The Marines rescue the kidnapped crew of the USS Philadelphia on the shores of Tripoli. They receive the nickname “Leatherneck” due to the high collar they wore as protection against the sabers of pirates.

The Marines rescue the kidnapped crew of the USS Philadelphia on the shores of Tripoli. They receive the nickname “Leatherneck” due to the high collar they wore as protection against the sabers of pirates.

1918: The Ferocity of the “Devil Dogs” – Battle of Belleau Wood

Marine forces launch a last-ditch close combat assault against German soldiers and completely shred the defensive counterattack. Surviving German soldiers nicknamed their adversaries “Devil Dogs,” due to their relentless fighting spirit.

Marine forces launch a last-ditch close combat assault against German soldiers and completely shred the defensive counterattack. Surviving German soldiers nicknamed their adversaries “Devil Dogs,” due to their relentless fighting spirit.

A LEGACY RISES

1942: Innovative air-ground team at the Battle of Guadalcanal

Several innovative tactical strategies were used by the Marines to capture the Japanese airfield, including intense Close Air Support for Marine ground forces. From the Father of Marine Aviation, Alfred Cunningham, "The only excuse for aviation in any service is its usefulness in assisting the troops on the ground."

Several innovative tactical strategies were used by the Marines to capture the Japanese airfield, including intense Close Air Support for Marine ground forces. From the Father of Marine Aviation, Alfred Cunningham, "The only excuse for aviation in any service is its usefulness in assisting the troops on the ground."


Highlights from 1800 to 1809 News, Key Events, Technology

Napoleon , as First Consul, marches his troops from Northern Italy into Austria. His advance to Vicuna was forestalled by a peace treaty. For his part in ending the campaign, Austria gave France their possessions in the Low Countries (Belgium) and control of the Rhine's western banks. His crossing the Alps was started by his army's move from France into Italy, and continued in his later approaches to Vienna. The Alpine farmers were helpful in Napoleon's navigation of the Saint Bernard's Pass, and a Swiss Pierre Nicholas Dorsaz was very helpful as a guide, in helping to prevent Napoleon's mule from slipping down a slope and into a crevasse. Dorsaz was rewarded 60 Louis (the coins that were still used in the Republic) for his help, and to use in the purchase of a farm.

First use of the White House , John Adams is the first President to live at the White House (which was originally called the Executive Mansion). He famously said that he had been appointed to the 'most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.' There is some doubt on whether he was referring to the office of President, or to the White House itself. In November he wrote to Abigail Adams that 'I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit it.'

United States Presidential Election , John Adams - Federalist is defeated by Thomas Jefferson - Democratic-Republican who became president on News Events From March 4 , 1801.

Invention of the modern day battery , Alessandro Volta created the first modern battery by demonstrating that an electrical current is generated when metals and chemicals come into contact.

Library of Congress , The Library of Congress was established by Congress in 1800. It was set up as the research library of the United States Congress and the Library's primary mission was for researching inquiries made by members of Congress. The Library is open to the public and is the largest library in the world by shelf space and holds the largest number of books.

Tsar Paul I Assassinated , Paul I had been Tsar of Russia from 1796 to 1801 when he was killed in his bedchamber at the Mikhaylovsky Palace. The assassination, on March 23, was done as a means of getting his son, Alexander, onto the throne. He had declared war on France, and was working on a number of strategies against Britain. He had also been making plans to spread his country's boundaries to the east, and by doing so he had made lot of detractors in court. He has been called a martyr.

Act of Union Enacted , The Act of Union uniting England to Ireland and Scotland. The Irish Parliament had been closed, but not before both Houses had ratified the Act on March 28th, 1800. The Act was given Royal Assent on August 1 , 1800, and was enacted from January 1st, 1801. A degree of bribery, in terms of knighthood and other honors are said to have been used to get the Irish Parliament to agree to it.

The Battle of Copenhagen , The battle was started on the morning of April 2 , and the twelve British ships that took part in it were commanded by Horatio Nelson (although the fleet was commanded by an Admiral Parker). The British and Danish ships exchanged fire and all reports have commented on how heavy the fighting was. It is said that the British sailors' superior experiences in Naval gunnery are what won the battle. The Bounty's Captain Bligh was in command of the Glatton, and fought against the Danish flagship (before being replaced by Nelson's the Elephant). Nelson offered the Danes, and Crown Prince Frederik, a cessation of violence. A cease fire was agreed and Nelson landed in Copenhagen. He was awarded a viscountcy for his success. Admiral Parker's squadron were not involved in the battle, and had not been able to see the battle because of the smoke that was coming from it.

Cairo Captured , The British Army, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, had arrived in Egypt in March 1801, and set about the French troops that were in residence. Abercromby was killed outside of Alexandria, and his role taken over by Sir John Hutchinson. The British were eventually supported by relief from India and Turkey, and the thirteen thousand French soldiers that remained in Cairo were surrounded. They returned to France in the terms of the surrender treaty that was signed on June 27 .

Ultraviolet Radiation Discovered , Ultraviolet radiation was discovered by the German Johann Ritter. He had seen that silver chloride would decompose beyond the violet end of the spectrum. Whilst it is invisible to the human eye, it can be seen under certain materials, which causes the emission of light.

Thomas Jefferson Becomes President , On March 4, 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the Third President of the United States following his defeat of John Adams the year before. Thomas Jefferson had been the principal author of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

West Point Military Academy , West Point is in Orange County, New York. Originally the United States Military Academy was the U.S. Corps of Engineers training school, but was made the U.S.M.A. by Congress on March 26, 1802. It was officially opened as such on July 4 of that year.

The Louisiana Purchase , Before the Purchase, Louisiana had encompassed a large part of the American Mid-west, from the Mississippi to the Rockies. It was bought from France in 1803 without an amendment to the Constitution (which did not allow for the annexation of territories). Louisiana which was much larger than just Louisiana and included all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, plus part of what are now Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Louisiana. The total land mass was 828,800 square miles for a total cost of 15 million dollars. At that time this doubled the size of the United States (today is about 1/4 of the countries total size). The Senate authorized the Purchase on November 29, 1803.

Railway Before Trains , One of the earliest railways was The Surrey Iron Railway, in terms of track. The Wandsworth-Croydon line allowed horse-drawn wagons to transport goods from Wandsworth to Croydon in Surrey. It was used until 1846 and the advent of the steam train. Its tracks were not capable of supporting the heavier loads that steam trains carried. The route followed the River Waddle from Wandsworth and went south to Croydon. Note that both of these areas have since become boroughs of London. The term wagonway has been used to describe the horse-drawn system.

Ohio Becomes The 17th state in the Union , Ohio was part of what was called the Northwest Territory occupying the southeastern portion and was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio on March 1, 1803. The Anglicized name 'Ohio' comes from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning 'great river'. Ohio is the first State to join the Union from the area known as The Northwest Territory which included Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota.

Britain Prepares For Possible Invasion By The French , Britain, concerned over the growth and success of French forces under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte, prepare for possible invasion by the French with 27,000 volunteers creating additional forces. Following the Battle Of Trafalgar under the leadership of Admiral Lord Nelson and the defeat of the French, the possibility of invasion ended.

New Jersey Abolishes Slavery , New Jersey was the last Northern state to emancipate its slaves. It was a partial abolition, and only given to those that were born after July 4th, 1804. And even the people who were born after 1804 were still required to work for the person whose land they lived on until they were twenty-five (if male) or twenty-one (if female). This bondage would still require them to act as 'apprentices' for the people who were, or would have been, their former masters. These were paid a 'fee' by the state for their support of the children, which lessened the previous slave-owners loss of a man or woman that had reached the age at which they were able to leave. This system meant that technically free people might be sent south and sold to the still slave-owning Southerners. New Jersey's slave population was said to be about twelve thousand when the law changed.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition , The Lewis and Clark expedition started from Camp Dubois, near present day Hartford, Illinois, on May 14 , 1804 and followed the Missouri River westward. They first built and then wintered at Fort Mandan (November 1804), near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. In April they continued the journey until they reached the Entrance of the Columbia River into the Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean on November 20th, 1805. They build and set up winter camp at Fort Clatsop close to what is now called Astoria, Oregon. On March 22nd, 1806, they began the journey back arriving back in St. Louis on September 23 1806. During the expedition, they had traveled by boat, by horse and on foot. Thomas Jefferson had asked them to keep diaries and maps of the expedition and they were able to dispel the concept of there being a 'Northwest Passage.' Lewis was made a governor of what would become Louisiana, and Clark the governor of Missouri.

Napoleon Bonaparte Coronation , The coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of the French took place on December 2nd, 1804, and was attended by his family, citizens, ministers and foreign dignitaries (including the Pope). The event, which took place in Nôtre Dame cathedral, made him Emperor of France. He lifted the crown to his own head, and the sword of Charlemagne had been brought to Paris for him. His garments had cost 99,000 francs, and Empress Joséphine's somewhat more. Street musicians and peddlers had been brought onto the streets around the Île de la Cité in order to add to the public's delight.

Twelfth Amendment To The Constitution , The twelfth amendment changed the method of presidential elections so that members of the Electoral College cast separate ballots for president and vice president. Prior to the Twelfth Amendment Whichever candidate received the greatest number of votes, except for the one elected President, became Vice President, the problem with this was a situation could happen in which the Vice President had been a defeated electoral opponent of the President and would impede the ability of the two to effectively work together, and could provide motivation, at least in theory, for a coup d'état (since the Vice President would succeed to the office of the President upon the removal or death of the President).
The Twelfth Amendment was designed to change that, ensuring the President and Vice President would work together as a team for the good of the country.

First Working Full Size Railway Steam Locomotive , Richard Trevithick turns a high pressure steam engine designed to drive a hammer at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks in Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales into a steam locomotive by mounting it on wheels and on the 21st of February, 1804 the world's first railway journey took place as Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in south Wales.
Earlier in 1784, William Murdoch, a Scottish inventor, built a prototype steam road locomotive, and in the United States Steamboat Pioneer John Fitch had built a working model of a steam rail locomotive probably during the 1780s or 1790s.
George Stephenson is best known as the "Father of Railways." He was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world designed to use steam locomotives (the Stockton and Darlington Railway) and later built the famous "Rocket steam locomotive" ( 1829 ).

1920's Fashion

Ladies Dresses From The Decade

Part of our Collection of Childrens Clothes From the Decade


Battle of Amstetten, 5 November 1805 - History


A.) The Diplomatic Pre-History of the War

On April 11th 1805 Britain and Russia signed the TREATY OF ST. PETERSBURG, an offensive alliance directed against France. They were joined by Austria (on August 9th), Sweden, while France was allied to Spain, to a number of satellite republics. Sweden only joined after Britain granted subsidies which virtually financed the entire Swedish war costs. Sweden armed 10,000 men.


B.) The Military Course of Events

In September 1805, Austrian troops invaded and occupied Bavaria French troops crossed the Rhine Baden, Wuerttemberg and Bayern concluded alliances with France (October) an Austrian force under General Mack was encircled at Ulm and surrendered (Oct. 17th 1805) French forces under General MURAT occupied Vienna (Oct. 21st) on the same day, the British Navy defeated an Anglo-French fleet in the BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR British Admiral LORD NELSON fell in the battle.
On November 3rd Prussia and Russia concluded the TREATY OF POTSDAM, in which Prussia obliged itself to join the coalition however it did not act upon its commitment. On December 2nd Napoleon decisively defeated an Austro-Russian force in the BATTLE OF AUSTERLITZ.

In the TREATY OF SCHOENBRUNN (Dec. 15th) Prussia - a country which had not actively participated in the war - ceded Ansbach, Bayreuth to Bavaria, Wesel, Cleve and Neuchatel to France, and was compensated with Hannover (hitherto in dynastic union with Britain, ceded by France without British approval).
In the PEACE OF PRESSBURG (Dec. 26th) Austria ceded Venice to the Kingdom of Italy, Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Eichstaett, Passau, Burgau, Brixen and Trient to Bavaria.


10. The Battles of Imphal and Kohima: 7 March – 18 July 1944

The Battles of Imphal and Kohima was a key turning point during the Burma campaign on World War Two. Masterminded by William Slim, British and Allied forces won a decisive victory against the Japanese forces situated in north-eastern India.

The Japanese siege of Kohima has been described as ‘the Stalingrad of the East’, and between 5 and 18 April the Allied defenders were engaged in some of the bitterest close-quarter fighting of the war.


Watch the video: The battle of Zaviča - Fictional 1808 Russio-Ottoman battle


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