Hermitage Replica of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Hermitage Replica of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia


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Statue

A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved or cast in a durable material such as wood, metal or stone. Typical statues are life-sized or close to life-size a sculpture that represents persons or animals in full figure but that is small enough to lift and carry is a statuette or figurine, whilst one more than twice life-size is a colossal statue. [2]

Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present the oldest-known statue dating to about 30,000 years ago. Statues represent many different people and animals, real and mythical. Many statues are placed in public places as public art. The world's tallest statue, Statue of Unity, is 182 metres (597 ft) tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India.


Contents

The Ancient Greek: ἥβη is the inherited word for "youth", from Proto-Indo-European *(H)iēg w -eh2-, "youth, vigour". [9]

The name Hebe comes from the Greek word meaning "youth" or "prime of life". Juventus likewise means "youth", as can be seen in such derivatives as juvenile.

Hebe is the daughter of Zeus and his older sister, Hera, and was seen in myth as a diligent daughter performing domestic tasks that were typical of high ranking, unmarried girls in ancient Greece. [10] In the Iliad, she did tasks around the household such as drawing baths for her brother Ares [11] and helping Hera enter her chariot. [12] Pindar in Nemean Ode 10 refers to her as the most beautiful of the goddesses, and being by her mother's side in Olympus forever. Although she was not as strongly associated with her father, Hebe was occasionally referred to with the epithet Dia (see Cult), which can be translated to "Daughter of Zeus" or "Heavenly". In some traditions that were recorded by Servius, her father Zeus gifted her two doves with human voices, and one flew to where the Oracle of Dodona would be established. [13] Additionally, Hebe was often connected to Aphrodite, whom she was described dancing with and acting as her herald or attendant, linking the Classical association between beauty and "the bloom of youth". [14] [15] In Euripedes' play Orestes, Helen is said to sit on a throne beside Hera and Hebe upon obtaining immortality.

One of her roles was to be the cupbearer to the gods, serving them ambrosia and nectar. [16] In Classical sources, Hebe's departure from this role was due to her marriage to the deified hero Heracles. Despite this, in the Iliad Hebe serves all the gods at their heavenly feast, while Ganymede is wine-pourer to Zeus alone. [17] Additionally, Cicero seems to imply that either Hebe or Ganymede, who is typically seen as her successor, could serve in the role of cupbearer at the heavenly feast. [18] The reasoning for Hebe's dismissal was transformed into a moralizing story in the 1500s by the Church of England, where it was stated in a note in an English-Latin dictionary that Hebe fell while in attendance to the gods, causing her dress to become undone, exposing her naked body publicly. [19] Although there is no Classical literary or artistic source for this account, the story was modified to function as a warning to women to stay modestly covered at all times, as naked women in particular were seen as shameful by the Church. [19] During this period, Hebe was strongly associated with spring, so this addition of Hebe falling to the myth was also allegorized to represent the change of season from spring to autumn. [20]

In a rare, alternative version of Hebe's conception, her mother Hera became pregnant merely by eating a lettuce plant while dining with her fellow Olympian, Apollo. [21] [22] This version was recorded by famed Italian mythographer Natalis Comes. [21] Reconstructed Orphic beliefs may also present a different version of Hera's impregnation with Hebe. [23] It should be remembered that this version of the myth of Hebe's birth is a speculative reconstruction, and therefore, it likely does not represent how the myth would have been known to its original audience. In this version, Hera sought out a way to become pregnant without assistance of Zeus by travelling to realm of Oceanus and Tethys at the end of the world. There, she entered the garden of Flora and she touched a sole, nameless plant from the land of Olene and became pregnant with Ares. [23] Hera returned to the garden sometime after his birth and ate lettuce to become pregnant with Hebe. [23] The consumption of lettuce in Ancient Greece was connected to sexual impotency in men and women, with Plutarch recording that women should never eat the heart of a lettuce. [23] Additionally, lettuce was associated with death, as Aphrodite laid the dying Adonis in a patch to potential aid in his reconstruction. [21] Despite these concerns, it was also believed that lettuce benefited menstrual flow and lactation in women, characteristics that may associate the plant with motherhood. [23] This version of Hebe's paternity is referenced by American author Henry David Thoreau in his work Walden, where Hebe is described as the daughter of Juno and wild lettuce.

A fragment by Callimachus describes Hera holding a feast to celebrate the seventh day after her daughter Hebe's birth. [24] The gods have a friendly argument over who will give the best gift, with Athena, Poseidon, Apollo, and Hephaestus specifically mentioned as presenting toys or, as in Apollo's case, songs. Callimachus, who composed a poem for the celebration of the seventh day after the birth of a daughter to his friend Leon, used Apollo's gift of a song as a divine prototype for his own gift. [25]

As the bride of Heracles, Hebe was strongly associated with both brides and her husband in art and literature. Hebe was the patron of brides, due to being the daughter of Hera and the importance of her own wedding. In some depictions on vase paintings, such as the Ricci Hydria dated to approximately 525 B.C.E., Hebe drives a chariot and is the one to bring her future husband, Heracles, to Olympus from Earth upon his apotheosis, a role traditionally fulfilled by Athena. [26] [27] A Krator in the Cleveland Museum may depict Hebe in chariot ready to leave Olympus to retrieve her husband in the presence of her mother, Artemis, and Apollo. [28] The lost comedic play, Hebes Gamos ("The Marriage of Hebe") by Epicharmus of Kos, depicted the wedding feast of Hebe and Heracles. [27] In Theocritus’s Encomium of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Herakles dines with Ptolemy I and Alexander at a feast on Olympus and after he has his fill of nectar, he bestows his bow and arrows and club to them and leaves for the Hebe's chamber. [29] [30] Here the couple is presented as one of the paradigms for marriage of Philadelphus and Arsinoe with Herakles retiring to Hebe's chambers in a scene reminiscent of a wedding. [29] Catullus in Poem 68 makes a positive reference to the legal marriage of Heracles to the virginal goddess Hebe to contrast with the poet's secret affair with a married woman. [31] Propertius also makes a reference to Herakles feeling a blazing love for Hebe upon his death at Mount Oeta, altering the traditional myth where Herakles marries Hebe after ascending to divinity. [32] Hebe's role as the patron of brides is referenced in Edmund Spenser's Epithalamion, where the poem also connects her to the fertility of the bride. [20]

Hebe had two children with Heracles: Alexiares and Anicetus. [33] Although nothing is known about these deities beyond their names, there is a fragment by Callimachus that makes a reference to Eileithyia, Hebe's sister and the goddess of childbirth, attending to her while in labour. [34]

According to some Classical authors, Hebe was connected to maintaining the youth and immortality of the other gods. Philostratus the Elder states that she is the reason the other gods are eternally young, and Bacchylides alleges that Hebe, as the princess (basileia), is responsible for immortality. [6] [35] This is another justification for her marriage to Heracles, as it ensures not only his immortality but also eternal youth, which were not viewed as equivalent in myths, such as with the case of Tithonus. In Euripides' play Heracleidae and in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Hebe grants Iolaus' wish to become young again in order to fight Eurystheus.

Hebe was particularly associated with the worship of her mother Hera in Argos and in the Heraion of Argos, one of the main centres of worship of Hera in Greece. It was said that Hebe, in a statue made of ivory and gold, was depicted standing beside a very large statue of Hera, which depicted the goddess seated holding a pomegranate and sceptre with a cuckoo perched on top. [36] A relief made of silver above an altar depicted the marriage of Hebe and Heracles. [36] Both of these depictions have been lost, but Argive coins have been found showing these two statues side by side. [37] It is possible the Hebe was worshipped as or represented the virginal aspect of Hera or that her worship was with her mother was similar to that of Demeter and Persephone, as both potentially represented the cycle of rebirth and renewal. [38] [37] Some scholars theorize that one of the Temples of Hera at Paestum may have been dedicated to Hera and Hebe rather than to Hera and Zeus, which is the more common consensus. [26] Scholars point to the headless bust of a well-dressed young girl that may have served as the antefix or acroterion of the temple as possibly being a representation of Hebe. [26] Hebe was also depicted, alongside Athena, standing beside a sitting statue of Hera in the Temple of Hera at Mantinea in Arkadia, sculptured by Praxiteles. [39]

Hebe also appears to be worshipped jointly with other figures as well. There is a record of a priestess from the deme of Aexone who served both Hebe and Alkmene being rewarded with a crown of olive leaves for her service. [40] Aelian also refer to Hebe being worshipped in a temple that was adjacent to a temple dedicated to her spouse Herakles in an unknown location. [41] The temples, which were separated by a canal, housed roosters in Herakles's temple and hens in Hebe's temple. Chickens were not commonly associated with either deity and more typically associated with Apollo. [42] Some scholars have indicated that in Assyria, Apollo was particularly associated with Hebe. [43]

Hebe also had her own personal cult and at least one temple in Greece dedicated to her. There was an altar for her in Athens at the Cynosarges. [44] This site also contained gymnasium and altars for Herakles and joint altar to Alcmene and Iolaus [45] In Sicyon, there was a temple dedicated to here and it was the center of her own cult. The Phliasians, who lived near Sicyon, honored Hebe (whom they called Dia, meaning "Daughter of Zeus") by pardoning supplicants. Hebe was also worshipped as a goddess of pardons or forgiveness freed prisoners would hang their chains in the sacred grove of her sanctuary at Phlius. Pausanias described the Temple of Hebe: "A second hill on which the Phliasians [of Phlios in Argolis] have their citadel and their sanctuary of Hebe." [4] He also described the cult of Hebe around the sanctuary:

"On the Phliasian citadel [at Phlios in Argolis] is a grove of cypress trees and a sanctuary which from ancient times has been held to be peculiarly holy. The earliest Phliasians named the goddess to whom the sanctuary belongs Ganymeda but later authorities call her Hebe, whom Homer mentions in the duel between Menelaos (Menelaus) and Alexandros (Alexander), saying that she was the cup-bearer of the gods and again he says, in the descent of Odysseus to Haides, that she was the wife of Heracles. Olen [a legendary Greek poet], in his hymn to Hera, says that Hera was reared by the Horai (Horae, Seasons), and that her children were Ares and Hebe. Of the honours that the Phliasians pay to this goddess the greatest is the pardoning of suppliants. All those who seek sanctuary here receive full forgiveness, and prisoners, when set free, dedicate their fetters on the trees in the grove. The Phliasians also celebrate a yearly festival which they call Kissotomoi (Ivy-cutters). There is no image, either kept in secret of openly displayed, and the reason for this is set forth in a sacred legend of theirs though on the left as you go out is a temple of Hera with an image of Parian marble." [46]

In art, Hebe is usually depicted wearing a sleeveless dress, typically she was depicted with either one or both her parents, at her wedding ceremony, or with Aphrodite.

Hebe was occasionally depicted with wings, which has led to confusion by modern scholars on whether depictions of winged female attendants are Hebe, Iris, or Nike. One confirmed depiction of Hebe with wings, as determined by the Η above the figure's head, on a cup by Sosias. [26] Hebe is presumably between enthroned parents as she waits for her future husband Heracles, who directed towards her by Athena, Apollo, and Hermes. Another notable depiction of a winged Hebe is by the Castelgiorgio painter on a cup, who pairs her with her mother and Ganymede analogously with Zeus Ares stands in the centre of the scene indicating familial harmony. [26]

It is possible that she is one of the winged figures from the Parthenon pediment in the British Museum, as the figure stands as an attendant to Hera and is near Zeus and Ares. [47] The figure could also represent Iris or Nike, but contextual evidence arguably makes the identification as Hebe more likely. [48] The depiction of Eros with his mother Aphrodite on the same frieze have been equated to Hebe's position to Hera, as the group seems to pay attention to the young maidens approaching from the right side of the eastern frieze. The two pairs were connected with love and weddings/marriage respectively, which would allude to the young maidens who would soon be married. [48] Another possible connection between the pairs is that Hebe and Eros are portrayed as children who are still dependent on their mothers and stay close to them as a result. [47] The identification of the figure as Hebe would also make sense due to the proximity to Zeus and Ares, her father and brother. Ares and Hebe here are represented as the product of a legal marriage, reinforcing the sacred marriage between Zeus and Hera, which gives an example of a prolific marriage to the mortal pair shown in the centre of the eastern frieze. [48]

Hebe may have been the Acroterion on the Temple of Ares in the Athenian Agora. [49] Hebe may have also been depicted on a fragmentary votive relief that was excavated near the Erechtheion, which shows Heracles being crowned by Nike, who places her left arm around another goddess's shoulders. [50] However, Hebe was not connected with Nike, leading most scholars to believe this goddess is Athena. [50]


3D printing puts Zeus back on his throne

One of the long-lost Seven Wonders of the World has been resurrected by Stratasys Ltd in partnership with the Millennium Gate Museum in Atlanta, Georgia. They have unveiled a "near-exact" 3D-printed scale plastic replica of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia created by the Eden Prairie, Minnesota-based additive manufacturing company to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games.

As history and crossword buffs know, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant effigy of the Greek god seated on an elaborately carved cedar throne inlaid with ebony, ivory, gold, and precious stones. It was designed and built in 432 BCE under the direction of the sculptor Phidias, the Athenian artist and architect also responsible for the Parthenon.

Needless to say, the modern recreation differs a bit from the original. Instead of plastic, the first one was made of gold and ivory set over a wooden frame and, instead of 6 ft (183 cm), the original was 43 ft (13 m) tall. The original took 12 years to build and was widely regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the World – a list that included the Great Pyramid of Giza (which is the only Wonder still to remain relatively intact), the Colossus of Rhodes and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Line drawing of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia

According to the Roman author, Suetonius, the mad Roman emperor Caligula gave orders for the statue to be dismantled and moved to Rome, but it "suddenly uttered such a peal of laughter that the scaffolding collapsed and the workmen took to their heels." This was regarded as an omen of Caligula's impending assassination in CE 41.

The fate of the Statue of Zeus is still unclear. It was either carried off to Constantinople, where it was destroyed in the great fire of the Palace of Lausus in CE 475, or it burned down in CE 425 when the temple in Olympia caught fire.

The replica was made by Stratasys in cooperation with the 3D Center at Kennesaw State University (KSU) using a Stratasys Fortus 900mc Production 3D Printer, which the company claims is up to 3x faster than traditional 3D processes and provides a smoother and more realistic final product with more detail. The Fortus 900mc uses Fused Deposition Modeling, which involves depositing molten engineering-grade thermoplastics using a CAD guide. The thermoplastic is supposed to be dimensionally stable and durable, and can hold the paint required to give the replica the necessary ivory and gold finish.

The replica awaiting painting

As to the accuracy of the replica, the only contemporary descriptions of the Statue of Zeus are brief ones from travelers and crude images on the back of coins, so the designers had to rely on later line drawings, which tend to be a bit fanciful. However, the Gate Museum sees the replica as having more significance than as a museum exhibit. It also provides a ray of hope in a modern age marked by shocking cultural vandalism by the likes of ISIS and the Taliban.

"Throughout history, there are always instances where the most precious works of art get destroyed or broken. In the past, this disappearance meant items were lost forever. That's why we're so heavily invested in the artistic value of 3D printing," says Jeremy Kobus, Director of the Gate Museum. "Committed to working at the intersection of technology and art, we see the tremendous potential of 3D printing for educational applications. Teaming with Stratasys and KSU's 3D Center, our hope is to deliver creations far too few have even tried to attempt."

The replica was painted to give it the ivory and gold finish of the original

The replica Statue of Zeus will be the centerpiece of the Gate Museum's "The Games: Ancient Olympia to Atlanta to Rio" exhibit, which opens on August 20.

The video below shows the construction of the Statue of Zeus replica.


Статуя Юпитера

Статуя Юпитера из коллекции Эрмитажа - одна из самых больших античных скульптур, сохранившихся в музеях мира. Статуя была найдена во время археологических раскопок, проводимых на вилле императора Домициана (81-96 гг. н.э.). Колоссальная скульптура Юпитера была создана римским мастером эпохи Флавиев. При Флавиях Рим достигает наивысшего расцвета, становится столицей цивилизованного мира. В Риме отстроен Колизей, триумфальная арка Тита, для провинций введено латинское (римское) право, во время правления этой династии произошло знаменитое извержение вулкана Везувий и погибли великолепные Помпеи и Геркуланум. Искусство периода Флавиев является величайшим мировым наследием. Композиция и манера исполнения Статуи Юпитера, напоминают не дошедшую до наших дней статую Зевса (автор Фидий) для храма в Олимпии. Римский скульптор в своей работе, сочетая мрамор, позолоченное дерево и гипс, имитировал отделку золотом и слоновой костью. Статуя считалась одним из чудес света. Римский публицист Дион Хризостом так говорил о статуе: «Кто станет перед этим образом, тот забудет обо всем, что терзает и огорчает человеческую жизнь».


The Site of Olympia

The site of Olympia is home to a number of temples, workshops, athletic facilities, administrative buildings, and baths. The most famous temple is probably the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, which was home to the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World. Of course, this statue has been lost to time and can’t be viewed today. Many of the temples statues still exist and are displayed in the Archaeological Museum of Olympia!

Hera, Demeter, and Rhea also had temples in their honor at Olympia. In fact, the Temple of Hera at Olympia is one of the oldest temples in all of Greece. A large wall separated the religious from the secular areas of the site.

Pheidias’ Workshop at Olympia

Olympia has many athletic facilities scattered around the site since it was home to the games. The ancient gymnasium, ancient stadium, and palaestra (practice facility) sit in ruins today. Like the modern games, a number of other facilities were necessary for the Olympics to be successful. Hotels, hostels, baths, theaters, and administrative buildings can be found around the site.

The Olympics were a melting pot of cultures, which attracted artists, especially Pheidias. Pheidias built a workshop across from the Temple of Zeus, where he created the brilliant statue of the God that became a Wonder of the Ancient World.


Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

NOTE: For more about the cultures and civilizations of Antiquity,
please see: Ancient Art (2,500,000 BCE - 400 CE).


Replia of the Ancient Wonder
known as The Temple of Artemis.


Replica of the Ancient Wonder
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

In the history of art, the term "Seven Wonders of the World" usually refers to the "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" - a list of exceptional works of architecture and sculpture created during the era of Classical Antiquity - as compiled by the Greek poet Antipater of Sidon (c.170-120 BCE). Other similar lists have been attributed to the historian Herodotus (484-425 BCE), the architect Callimachus of Cyrene (c.305𤫠 BC) and the engineer Philo of Byzantium (280-220 BCE), but Antipater's selection is the best known. Being a native of Ancient Greece, it is perhaps not surprising that his list is heavily biased towards the achievements of Greek architecture and Greek sculpture, although Ancient Egyptian architecture should have been favoured with the inclusion of The Temple of Amon (1530-323 BCE), part of the Karnak complex, near luxor. This colossal temple could accomodate 10 typical European cathedrals. As it is, only the Pyramid of Giza and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were not created by Greeks.

Of the original seven choices, only one - the Great Pyramid of Giza, ironically the oldest of the ancient wonders - is still standing, although its dazzling white facing was removed for building purposes about 1300 CE. The location and fate of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon is not known, indeed it may never have existed the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Colossus of Rhodes and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus collapsed due to earthquakes while the Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were deliberately destroyed by fire. The Colossus of Rhodes was the second last to be built (c.280 BCE) but the first to be destroyed (in 226 BCE), so all seven monuments co-existed for no more than 60 years. NOTE: For later styles inspired by the classical sculpture and architecture of ancient Greece, see: Classicism in Art (800 onwards).


Statue of Zeus
Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.
Roman copy of a Seated Zeus,
in marble and bronze, similar to
The Statue of Zeus at Oympia.

GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA (c.2565 BCE)
Giza Necropolis, Egypt.

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Cheops or the Pyramid of Khufu) is the oldest (and biggest) of the three pyramids in the Giza precinct. Egyptologists consider that the pyramid took roughly 20 years to erect, and at 146.5 metres (481 feet), it remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. The pyramid has three known chambers and is the only example of Egyptian pyramid architecture known to contain both ascending and descending passageways.

HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON (c.600 BCE)
Possibly Babylon or Nineveh.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon is the only one of the Seven Wonders whose location has not been archeologically confirmed. The creation of the Gardens - a series of landscaped terraces - is attributed to the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II (ruled 605-562 BCE) - who is said to have built the Hanging Gardens for his wife, Queen Amytis, because she missed the green hills and valleys of her homeland - but no Babylonian text confirming this has survived. Moreover there is also no mention of Nebuchadnezzar's wife Amyitis, although a political marriage to a princess from Media or Persia would not have been unusual. This absence of information has caused other scholars like Stephanie Dalley to raise the possibility that the Gardens were those created by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (ruled 704𤲙 BCE) in his capital of Nineveh on the River Tigris near present-day Mosul. See: Assyrian Art (1500-612 BCE) - compare with Hittite art (c.1600-1180 BCE).

TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS AT EPHESUS (550-323 BCE)
Near Selcuk, Izmir Province, Turkey.

The Temple of Artemis (sometimes called the Temple of Diana) was totally rebuilt three times before its eventual destruction by fire and vandalism in 401 CE. Only ruined foundations and fragments of sculpture remain. The first sanctuary dates back to the Bronze Age, during the golden era of Aegean art and Minoan art around the Eastern Mediterranean. In the 7th century BCE, the early sanctuary was destroyed by floods, and was rebuilt in marble about 550 BCE, by the Cretan architect Chersiphron. It was this masterpiece of Greek art, measuring roughly 130 metres (425 feet) in length and supported by pillars 18 metres (60 feet) high, that became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The temple took 10 years to complete. It was later destroyed by the arsonist Herostratus, and duly rebuilt.

STATUE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA (466-435 BCE)
Sanctuary of Olympia, Greece.

This famous chryselephantine sculpture of Zeus at Olympia - some 13 metres (42 ft) in height - was sculpted by the Greek artist Phidias (488-431 BCE) around 435 BCE. Made from ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden framework, it depicted the god Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedar throne decorated with ivory and ebony, as well all gold and precious stones. No replica of the statue is known, and details of its shape and dimensions derive only from ancient Greek texts and representations on coins.

MAUSOLEUM AT HALICARNASSUS (353-350 BCE)
Bodrum, Turkey.

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was constructed for Mausolus - a Provincial Governor in the Persian Empire - and his wife Artemisia II of Caria. Designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene, it was 45 metres (148 ft) in height, and all four walls were decorated with relief sculpture, by Leochares, Bryaxis, Timotheus and Skopas of Paros. The tomb was destroyed by successive earthquakes during the late Middle Ages, between about 1150 and 1402.

COLOSSUS OF RHODES (292-280 BCE)
City of Rhodes.

A famous work of Hellenistic art, the Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek God of the sun Helios. It was built on the island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos in 280 BCE, in order to celebrate victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I. Mounted on a 15-metre (49-ft) high marble pedestal near the entrance to Mandraki harbour, the statue itself was over 30 metres (98 ft) tall, which made it one of the tallest statues of Antiquity. A combination of carving and precious metalwork, its feet were carved in stone and overlaid with thin bronze plates riveted together. The remainder of the statue was made using an iron structure covered with brass plates. The entire structure took 12 years to complete. The statue survived intact for 54 years until 226 BCE when the island was hit by a major earthquake, causing the statue to snap at the knees. According to reports, unfavourable omens prevented the rebuilding of the statue whose ruins remained in situ for over 800 years. Later, in 653 CE, according to the Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor the statue was broken up and sold.

Lists of the Seven Wonders of the World compiled after 226 BCE usually include the Ishtar Gate, the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon, built around 575 BCE by King Nebuchadnezzar II.

LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA (c.285 BCE)
Island of Pharos, Alexandria, Egypt.

Also known as the Pharos of Alexandria, this navigational tower was commissioned by Ptolemy Lagides (367-283 BCE), a trusted Macedonian commander under Alexander the Great, who went on to become ruler of Egypt (as Ptolemy I 323𤬋 BCE) and the founder of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Construction of the lighthouse began in 280 and was completed some time during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283-246 BCE). Built out of limestone blocks, it stood 120-137 metres (393-450 ft) in height, and was one of the tallest man-made structures in the ancient world for centuries. It consisted of three stages: a lower square section, a middle octagonal section, and a circular section on top. During the day a mirror was used to reflect sunlight while a fire was lit at night. The stone blocks of the lighthouse were sealed together with molten lead, to enable it to withstand the waves. Badly damaged by earthquakes (956-1323) it became a ruin. In 1994, fragments of the lighthouse were discovered on the seabed of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour.

NOTE: For an example of a world-famous monument voted one of the "New Seven Wonders of the World" in a recent 100-million voter poll, see: Taj Mahal (c.1632-54).

• For more about arts and crafts in the ancient world, see: Homepage.


Contents

The context of the Winged Victory of Samothrace, discovered in 1863, is controversial, with proposals ranging from the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC to the Battle of Actium in 31 BC as the event being celebrated. Datings based on stylistic evaluation have been equally variable, ranging across the same three centuries, but perhaps tending to an earlier date. [2] For much of the 20th century, the prevailing theory, based on the works of Hermann Thiersch and Karl Leo Heinrich Lehmann, considered it a Rhodian monument dedicated following the victories at Side and Myonessos in 190 BC, and suggested that it might have been carved by the Rhodian sculptor Pythocritus. [3] However, by the mid-2010s, the reconstructions of the monument proposed by Lehmann have been shown to be false (the remains of the surrounding space that housed the Victory belong to the Roman period), and the question of why the statue was dedicated on Samothrace, which at the time was dominated by the Kingdom of Macedonia, remains unanswered. [4]

The statue is 244 centimetres (8.01 ft) high. [5] It was created not only to honour the goddess, Nike, but probably also to commemorate a naval action. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery, as though the goddess were descending to alight upon the prow of a ship.

Modern excavations suggest that the Victory occupied a niche above a theater and also suggest it accompanied an altar that was within view of the ship monument of Demetrius I Poliorcetes (337–283 BC). Rendered in grey and white Thasian and Parian marble, the figure originally formed part of the Samothrace temple complex dedicated to the Great gods, Megaloi Theoi. It stood on a rostral pedestal of gray marble from Lartos representing the prow of a ship (most likely a trihemiolia), and represents the goddess as she descends from the skies to the triumphant fleet. Before she lost her arms, which have never been recovered, Nike's right arm is believed to have been raised, [6] cupped round her mouth to deliver the shout of Victory. [7] The work is notable for its convincing rendering of a pose where violent motion and sudden stillness meet, for its graceful balance and for the rendering of the figure's draped garments, compellingly depicted as if rippling in a strong sea breeze. Similar traits can be seen in the Laocoön group which is a reworked copy of a lost original that was likely close both in time and place of origin to Nike, but while Laocoön, vastly admired by Renaissance and classicist artists, has come to be seen [ by whom? ] as a more self-conscious and contrived work, Nike of Samothrace is seen as an iconic depiction of triumphant spirit and of the divine momentarily coming face to face with man.

The statue's outstretched right wing is a symmetric plaster version of the original left one. The stylistic portrayal of the wings is a source of scholarly discussion, as the feather pattern resembles neither the wings of birds in nature nor wings in Greek art. [8] As with the arms, the figure's head has never been found, but various other fragments have since been found: in 1950, a team led by Karl Lehmann unearthed the missing right hand of the Louvre's Winged Victory. The fingerless hand had slid out of sight under a large rock, near where the statue had originally stood on the return trip home, Phyllis Williams Lehmann identified the tip of the Goddess's ring finger and her thumb in a storage drawer at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, where the second Winged Victory is displayed the fragments have been reunited with the hand, [9] which is now in a glass case in the Louvre next to the podium on which the statue stands.

The different degree of finishing of the sides has led scholars to think that it was intended to be seen from three-quarters on the left.

A partial inscription on the base of the statue includes the word "Rhodios" (Rhodian), indicating that the statue was commissioned to celebrate a naval victory by Rhodes, at that time the most powerful maritime state in the Aegean which in itself would date the statue to 288 BC at the earliest. [10]

The sculptor is unknown, [11] although Paul MacKendrick suggests that Pythokritos of Lindos is responsible. [12] When first discovered on the island of Samothrace (then part of the Ottoman Empire and called Semadirek) and published in 1863, it was suggested that the Victory was erected by the Macedonian general Demetrius Poliorcetes after his naval victory at Cyprus, between 295 and 289 BC. The Archaeological Museum of Samothrace continues to follow these originally established provenance and dates. [b] Ceramic evidence discovered in recent excavations has revealed that the pedestal was set up about 200 BC, though some scholars still date it as early as 250 BC or as late as 180. [13] Certainly, the parallels with figures and drapery from the Pergamon Altar (dated about 170 BC) seem strong. The evidence for a Rhodian commission of the statue has been questioned, however, and the closest artistic parallel to the Nike of Samothrace are figures depicted on Macedonian coins. [14] Samothrace was an important sanctuary for the Hellenistic Macedonian kings. The most likely battle commemorated by this monument is, perhaps, the Battle of Cos in 255 BC, in which Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia won over the fleet of Ptolemy II of Egypt. [15]

The Victory was discovered in April 1863 by the amateur archeologist and then French vice-consul to Adrianopolis Charles Champoiseau (1830–1909), who sent it to Paris in the same year. The statue has been reassembled in stages since its discovery. The prow was reconstructed from marble debris at the site by Champoiseau in 1879 and assembled in situ before being shipped to Paris.

After 1884, the statue was positioned where it would visually dominate the Daru staircase. [c] Since 1883, the marble figure has been displayed in the Louvre, while a plaster replica stands at the original location of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on Samothrace.

In the autumn of 1939, the Winged Victory was removed from her perch in anticipation of the outbreak of World War II. All the museums of Paris were closed on August 25. Artwork and objects were packed for removal to locations deemed safer outside Paris for safekeeping. On the night of September 3, the statue descended the staircase on a wooden ramp which was constructed across the steps. [16] During the years of World War II, the statue was sheltered in safety in the Château de Valençay along with the Venus de Milo and Michelangelo's Slaves. [17]

The discovery in the 1950s of the palm of the right hand and two fingers established that this hand was meant to show a simple gesture of statue and was not holding an object the partial hand is stored next to the statue. [18]

In 2013 a restoration effort was launched to improve the appearance of the sculpture. This was the first detailed examination of the individual pieces of the sculpture to date. The restoration aimed to restore the marble to its original hue which had been tarnished by time. The sculpture was removed from its base and carried into an adjoining room which was transformed for the occasion into a restoration workshop. The base was dismantled block by block and placed in the workshop. Scientific reviews were performed on the base (UV, Infrared, X-ray spectroscopy) prior to cleaning the surface of the marble. This effort aimed to respect the goals of the original restoration performed in 1883. The surface of the base was cleaned and then reassembled, and some gaps in the marble were repaired. Upon completion of the restoration, the statue was reunited with its base and returned to its prior position at the head of the Daru staircase in the Louvre.

Despite its significant damage and incompleteness, the Victory is held to be one of the great surviving masterpieces of sculpture from the Hellenistic Period, and from the entire Greco-Roman era. The statue shows a mastery of form and movement which has impressed critics and artists since its discovery. It is considered one of the Louvre's greatest treasures, and since the late 19th century it has been displayed in the most dramatic fashion, at the head of the sweeping Daru staircase.

The art historian H. W. Janson has pointed out [1] that unlike earlier Greek or Near Eastern sculptures, Nike creates a deliberate relationship to the imaginary space around the goddess. The wind that has carried her and which she is fighting off, straining to keep steady – as mentioned the original mounting had her standing on a ship's prow, just having landed – is the invisible complement of the figure and the viewer is made to imagine it. At the same time, this expanded space heightens the symbolic force of the work the wind and the sea are suggested as metaphors of struggle, destiny and divine help or grace. This kind of interplay between a statue and the space conjured up would become a common device in baroque and romantic art, about two thousand years later. It is present in Michelangelo's sculpture of David: David's gaze and pose shows where he is seeing his adversary Goliath and his awareness of the moment – but it is rare in ancient art.

The Victory soon became a cultural icon to which artists responded in many different ways. For example, Abbott Handerson Thayer's A Virgin (1892–93) is a well-known painted allusion. When Filippo Tommaso Marinetti issued his Futurist Manifesto in 1909, he chose to contrast his movement with the supposedly defunct artistic sentiments of the Winged Victory: "a race-automobile which seems to rush over exploding powder is more beautiful than the 'Victory of Samothrace ' ".

The 1913 sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by the Futuristic sculptor Umberto Boccioni, currently located at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York, was influenced by the statue, and is said to bear an underlying resemblance to it. [19]

On February 3, 1999, according to the Macedonian Press Agency: News in English, "residents of the Aegean island of Samothrace, the birthplace of the renowned Greek sculpture Nike of Samothrace, aka the Winged Victory, embarked on a letter-writing campaign to have this finest extant of Hellenistic sculpture returned to their homeland. In a letter signed by the island's mayor, the locals urged Greek politicians to intervene and request that the Louvre museum, where the statue is kept, acknowledge that the sculpture belongs in its natural environment." [20]

The Greek Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs asked again for its return in 2013. [21]


Contents

By the classical period, roughly the 5th and 4th centuries, monumental sculpture was composed almost entirely of marble or bronze with cast bronze becoming the favoured medium for major works by the early 5th century many pieces of sculpture known only in marble copies made for the Roman market were originally made in bronze. Smaller works were in a great variety of materials, many of them precious, with a very large production of terracotta figurines. The territories of ancient Greece, except for Sicily and southern Italy, contained abundant supplies of fine marble, with Pentelic and Parian marble the most highly prized. The ores for bronze were also relatively easy to obtain. [2]

Both marble and bronze are easy to form and very durable as in most ancient cultures there were no doubt also traditions of sculpture in wood about which we know very little, other than acrolithic sculptures, usually large, with the head and exposed flesh parts in marble but the clothed parts in wood. As bronze always had a significant scrap value very few original bronzes have survived, though in recent years marine archaeology or trawling has added a few spectacular finds, such as the Artemision Bronze and Riace bronzes, which have significantly extended modern understanding. Many copies of the Roman period are marble versions of works originally in bronze. Ordinary limestone was used in the Archaic period, but thereafter, except in areas of modern Italy with no local marble, only for architectural sculpture and decoration. Plaster or stucco was sometimes used for the hair only. [3]

Chryselephantine sculptures, used for temple cult images and luxury works, used gold, most often in leaf form and ivory for all or parts (faces and hands) of the figure, and probably gems and other materials, but were much less common, and only fragments have survived. Many statues were given jewellery, as can be seen from the holes for attaching it, and held weapons or other objects in different materials. [4]

Ancient Greek sculptures were originally painted bright colors [5] [6] [7] they only appear white today because the original pigments have deteriorated. [5] [6] References to painted sculptures are found throughout classical literature, [5] [6] including in Euripides's Helen in which the eponymous character laments, "If only I could shed my beauty and assume an uglier aspect/The way you would wipe color off a statue." [6] Some well-preserved statues still bear traces of their original coloration [5] and archaeologists can reconstruct what they would have originally looked like. [5] [6] [7]

By the early 19th century, the systematic excavation of ancient Greek sites had brought forth a plethora of sculptures with traces of notably multicolored surfaces, some of which were still visible. Despite this, influential art historians such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann so strongly opposed the idea of painted Greek sculpture that proponents of painted statues were dismissed as eccentrics, and their views were largely dismissed for more than a century.

It was not until published findings by German archaeologist Vinzenz Brinkmann in the late 20th and early 21st century that the painting of ancient Greek sculptures became an established fact. Using high-intensity lamps, ultraviolet light, specially designed cameras, plaster casts, and certain powdered minerals, Brinkmann proved that the entire Parthenon, including the actual structure as well as the statues, had been painted. He analyzed the pigments of the original paint to discover their composition.

Brinkmann made several painted replicas of Greek statues that went on tour around the world. Also in the collection were replicas of other works of Greek and Roman sculpture, and he demonstrated that the practice of painting sculpture was the norm rather than the exception in Greek and Roman art. [8] Museums that hosted the exhibit included the Glyptothek Museum in Munich, the Vatican Museum, and the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, et al. The collection made its American debut at Harvard University in the Fall of 2007. [9]

Brinkmann said that "no other aspect of the art of antiquity is as little understood as is the polychrome painting of temples and sculptures", and that modern sculptures, ostensibly inspired by the Greeks but left unpainted, are "something entirely new". [10]

Geometric Edit

It is commonly thought that the earliest incarnation of Greek sculpture was in the form of wooden cult statues, first described by Pausanias as xoana. [11] No such statues survive, and the descriptions of them are vague, despite the fact that they were probably objects of veneration for hundreds of years. The first piece of Greek statuary to be reassembled since is probably the Lefkandi Centaur, a terracotta sculpture found on the island of Euboea, dated c. 920 BC . The statue was constructed in parts, before being dismembered and buried in two separate graves. The centaur has an intentional mark on its knee, which has led researchers to postulate [12] that the statue might portray Cheiron, presumably kneeling wounded from Herakles' arrow. If so, it would be the earliest known depiction of myth in the history of Greek sculpture.

The forms from the Geometric period (c. 900 to 700 BC ) were chiefly terracotta figurines, bronzes, and ivories. The bronzes are chiefly tripod cauldrons, and freestanding figures or groups. Such bronzes were made using the lost-wax technique probably introduced from Syria, and are almost entirely votive offerings left at the Hellenistic civilization Panhellenic sanctuaries of Olympia, Delos, and Delphi, though these were likely manufactured elsewhere, as a number of local styles may be identified by finds from Athens, Argos, and Sparta. Typical works of the era include the Karditsa warrior (Athens Br. 12831) and the many examples of the equestrian statuette (for example, NY Met. 21.88.24 online). The repertory of this bronze work is not confined to standing men and horses, however, as vase paintings of the time also depict imagery of stags, birds, beetles, hares, griffins and lions. There are no inscriptions on early-to-middle geometric sculpture, until the appearance of the Mantiklos "Apollo" (Boston 03.997) of the early 7th century BC found in Thebes. The figure is that of a standing man with a pseudo-daedalic form, underneath which lies the hexameter inscription reading "Mantiklos offered me as a tithe to Apollo of the silver bow do you, Phoibos [Apollo], give some pleasing favour in return". [13] Apart from the novelty of recording its own purpose, this sculpture adapts the formulae of oriental bronzes, as seen in the shorter more triangular face and slightly advancing left leg. This is sometimes seen as anticipating the greater expressive freedom of the 7th century BC and, as such, the Mantiklos figure is referred to in some quarters as proto-Daedalic.

Archaic Edit

Inspired by the monumental stone sculpture of ancient Egypt [15] and Mesopotamia, the Greeks began again to carve in stone. Free-standing figures share the solidity and frontal stance characteristic of Eastern models, but their forms are more dynamic than those of Egyptian sculpture, as for example the Lady of Auxerre and Torso of Hera (Early Archaic period, c. 660–580 BC , both in the Louvre, Paris). After about 575 BC, figures such as these, both male and female, began wearing the so-called archaic smile. This expression, which has no specific appropriateness to the person or situation depicted, may have been a device to give the figures a distinctive human characteristic.

Three types of figures prevailed—the standing nude male youth (kouros, plural kouroi), the standing draped girl (kore, plural korai), and the seated woman. All emphasize and generalize the essential features of the human figure and show an increasingly accurate comprehension of human anatomy. The youths were either sepulchral or votive statues. Examples are Apollo (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), an early work the Strangford Apollo from Anafi (British Museum), a much later work and the Anavyssos Kouros (National Archaeological Museum of Athens). More of the musculature and skeletal structure is visible in this statue than in earlier works. The standing, draped girls have a wide range of expression, as in the sculptures in the Acropolis Museum of Athens. Their drapery is carved and painted with the delicacy and meticulousness common in the details of sculpture of this period.

The Greeks thus decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. Seeing their gods as having human form, there was no distinction between the sacred and the secular in art—the human body was both secular and sacred. A male nude without any attachments such as a bow or a club, could just as easily be Apollo or Heracles as that year's Olympic boxing champion. In the Archaic Period the most important sculptural form was the kouros (See for example Biton and Kleobis). The kore was also common Greek art did not present female nudity (unless the intention was pornographic) until the 4th century BC, although the development of techniques to represent drapery is obviously important.

As with pottery, the Greeks did not produce sculpture merely for artistic display. Statues were commissioned either by aristocratic individuals or by the state, and used for public memorials, as offerings to temples, oracles and sanctuaries (as is frequently shown by inscriptions on the statues), or as markers for graves. Statues in the Archaic period were not all intended to represent specific individuals. They were depictions of an ideal—beauty, piety, honor or sacrifice. These were always depictions of young men, ranging in age from adolescence to early maturity, even when placed on the graves of (presumably) elderly citizens. Kouroi were all stylistically similar. Graduations in the social stature of the person commissioning the statue were indicated by size rather than artistic innovations.

Dipylon Kouros, c. 600 BC, Athens, Kerameikos Museum.

The Moschophoros or calf-bearer, c. 570 BC, Athens, Acropolis Museum.

Euthydikos Kore. c. 490 BC, Athens, authorized replica, original in National Archaeological Museum of Athens

An Ethiopian's head and female head, with a kalos inscription. Attic Greek janiform red-figure aryballos, c. 520–510 BC.

Classical Edit

The Classical period saw a revolution of Greek sculpture, sometimes associated by historians with the popular culture surrounding the introduction of democracy and the end of the aristocratic culture associated with the kouroi. The Classical period saw changes in the style and function of sculpture, along with a dramatic increase in the technical skill of Greek sculptors in depicting realistic human forms. Poses also became more naturalistic, notably during the beginning of the period. This is embodied in works such as the Kritios Boy (480 BC), sculpted with the earliest known use of contrapposto ('counterpose'), and the Charioteer of Delphi (474 BC), which demonstrates a transition to more naturalistic sculpture. From about 500 BC, Greek statues began increasingly to depict real people, as opposed to vague interpretations of myth or entirely fictional votive statues, although the style in which they were represented had not yet developed into a realistic form of portraiture. The statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up in Athens mark the overthrow of the aristocratic tyranny, and have been said to be the first public monuments to show actual individuals.

The Classical Period also saw an increase in the use of statues and sculptures as decorations of buildings. The characteristic temples of the Classical era, such as the Parthenon in Athens, and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, used relief sculpture for decorative friezes, and sculpture in the round to fill the triangular fields of the pediments. The difficult aesthetic and technical challenge stimulated much in the way of sculptural innovation. Most of these works survive only in fragments, for example the Parthenon Marbles, roughly half of which are in the British Museum.

Funeral statuary evolved during this period from the rigid and impersonal kouros of the Archaic period to the highly personal family groups of the Classical period. These monuments are commonly found in the suburbs of Athens, which in ancient times were cemeteries on the outskirts of the city. Although some of them depict "ideal" types—the mourning mother, the dutiful son—they increasingly depicted real people, typically showing the departed taking his dignified leave from his family. This is a notable increase in the level of emotion relative to the Archaic and Geometrical eras.

Another notable change is the burgeoning of artistic credit in sculpture. The entirety of information known about sculpture in the Archaic and Geometrical periods are centered upon the works themselves, and seldom, if ever, on the sculptors. Examples include Phidias, known to have overseen the design and building of the Parthenon, and Praxiteles, whose nude female sculptures were the first to be considered artistically respectable. Praxiteles' Aphrodite of Knidos, which survives in copies, was often referenced to and praised by Pliny the Elder.

Lysistratus is said to have been the first to use plaster molds taken from living people to produce lost-wax portraits, and to have also developed a technique of casting from existing statues. He came from a family of sculptors and his brother, Lysippos of Sicyon, produced fifteen hundred statues in his career. [16]

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Statue of Athena Parthenos (both chryselephantine and executed by Phidias or under his direction, and considered to be the greatest of the Classical Sculptures), are lost, although smaller copies (in other materials) and good descriptions of both still exist. Their size and magnificence prompted rivals to seize them in the Byzantine period, and both were removed to Constantinople, where they were later destroyed.

Kritios Boy. Marble, c. 480 BC. Acropolis Museum, Athens.

So-called Venus Braschi by Praxiteles, type of the Knidian Aphrodite, Munich Glyptothek.

Family group on a grave marker from Athens, National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Terracotta vase in the shape of Dionysus' head, ca. 410 BC on display in the Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus

Athenian cavalryman Dexileos fighting a naked hoplite in the Corinthian War. [17] Dexileos was killed in action near Corinth in the summer of 394 BC, probably in the Battle of Nemea, [17] or in a proximate engagement. [18] Grave Stele of Dexileos, 394-393 BC.

Hellenistic Edit

The transition from the Classical to the Hellenistic period occurred during the 4th century BC. Greek art became increasingly diverse, influenced by the cultures of the peoples drawn into the Greek orbit, by the conquests of Alexander the Great (336 to 323 BC). In the view of some art historians, this is described as a decline in quality and originality however, individuals of the time may not have shared this outlook. Many sculptures previously considered classical masterpieces are now known to be of the Hellenistic age. The technical ability of the Hellenistic sculptors are clearly in evidence in such major works as the Winged Victory of Samothrace, and the Pergamon Altar. New centres of Greek culture, particularly in sculpture, developed in Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamum, and other cities. By the 2nd century BC, the rising power of Rome had also absorbed much of the Greek tradition—and an increasing proportion of its products as well.

During this period, sculpture again experienced a shift towards increasing naturalism. Common people, women, children, animals, and domestic scenes became acceptable subjects for sculpture, which was commissioned by wealthy families for the adornment of their homes and gardens. Realistic figures of men and women of all ages were produced, and sculptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as ideals of beauty or physical perfection. At the same time, new Hellenistic cities springing up in Egypt, Syria, and Anatolia required statues depicting the gods and heroes of Greece for their temples and public places. This made sculpture, like pottery, an industry, with the consequent standardisation and (some) lowering of quality. For these reasons, quite a few more Hellenistic statues survive to the present than those of the Classical period.

Alongside the natural shift towards naturalism, there was a shift in expression of the sculptures as well. Sculptures began expressing more power and energy during this time period. An easy way to see the shift in expressions during the Hellenistic period would be to compare it to the sculptures of the Classical period. The classical period had sculptures such as the Charioteer of Delphi expressing humility. The sculptures of the Hellenistic period however saw greater expressions of power and energy as demonstrated in the Jockey of Artemision. [19]

Some of the best known Hellenistic sculptures are the Winged Victory of Samothrace (2nd or 1st century BC), the statue of Aphrodite from the island of Melos known as the Venus de Milo (mid-2nd century BC), the Dying Gaul (about 230 BC), and the monumental group Laocoön and His Sons (late 1st century BC). All these statues depict Classical themes, but their treatment is far more sensuous and emotional than the austere taste of the Classical period would have allowed or its technical skills permitted. Hellenistic sculpture was also marked by an increase in scale, which culminated in the Colossus of Rhodes (late 3rd century), thought to have been roughly the same size as the Statue of Liberty. The combined effect of earthquakes and looting have destroyed this as well as any other very large works of this period that might have existed.

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek culture spread as far as India, as revealed by the excavations of Ai-Khanoum in eastern Afghanistan, and the civilization of the Greco-Bactrians and the Indo-Greeks. Greco-Buddhist art represented a syncretism between Greek art and the visual expression of Buddhism. Discoveries made since the end of the 19th century surrounding the (now submerged) ancient Egyptian city of Heracleum include a 4th-century BC depiction of Isis. The depiction is unusually sensual for depictions of the Egyptian goddess, as well as being uncharacteristically detailed and feminine, marking a combination of Egyptian and Hellenistic forms around the time of Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt.

In Goa, India, were found Buddha statues in Greek styles. These are attributed to Greek converts to Buddhism, many of whom are known to have settled in Goa during Hellenistic times. [20] [21]

The Hellenistic Prince, a bronze statue originally thought to be a Seleucid, or Attalus II of Pergamon, now considered a portrait of a Roman general, made by a Greek artist working in Rome in the 2nd century BC.


Archaeology Blog post

Having a career in archaeology is something that has always been interesting to me. I think the most appealing thing about the job would be uncovering history that was left behind, and also just trying to figure out how people exactly lived back then.

If I had to choose one ancient civilization to study it would be Greece. I would choose Greece because that civilization has always interested me, from the gods they worshipped to just their everyday living.

One interesting artifact that archaeologists have uncovered is the statue of Zeus. Zeus was the most important god to the Greeks, they had festivals and the Olympic games in his honor. The first archaeological dig on the site where Zeus’ statue sat was by the French in 1829, But it wasn’t until 1875 that the German’s found more fragments of the statue.


Watch the video: Colossus of Rhodes


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