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10 June 1943
All available Allied aircraft attack Pantelleria. The island surrenders on 11 June
Rabaul is attacked by five waves of US heavy bombers
The Battle of Britain begins
On July 10, 1940, the Germans begin the first in a long series of bombing raids against Great Britain, as the Battle of Britain, which will last three and a half months, begins.
After the occupation of France by Germany, Britain knew it was only a matter of time before the Axis power turned its sights across the Channel. And on July 10, 120 German bombers and fighters struck a British shipping convoy in that very Channel, while 70 more bombers attacked dockyard installations in South Wales.
Although Britain had far fewer fighters than the Germans to 1,300—it had a few advantages, such as an effective radar system, which made the prospects of a German sneak attack unlikely. Britain also produced superior quality aircraft. Its Spitfires could turn tighter than Germany’s ME109s, enabling it to better elude pursuers. The German single-engine fighters had a limited flight radius, and its bombers lacked the bomb-load capacity necessary to unleash permanent devastation on their targets. Britain also had the advantage of unified focus, while German infighting caused missteps in timing they also suffered from poor intelligence.
But in the opening days of battle, Britain was in immediate need of two things: a collective stiff upper lip𠅊nd aluminum. A plea was made by the government to turn in all available aluminum to the Ministry of Aircraft Production. “We will turn your pots and pans into Spitfires and Hurricanes,” the ministry declared. And they did.
The Eagle, Volume 2, Number 6, Thursday, June 10, 1943
Weekly newsletter published for employees of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Fort Worth Division containing work-related information, updates about employees, and other news.
This periodical is part of the collection entitled: Convair/General Dynamics Newsletters and was provided by the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 68 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.
People and organizations associated with either the creation of this periodical or its content.
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the world. Fort Worth is home to their headquarters, and they have facilities across the country. In addition to their role in national security, the company has kept extensive image archives of U.S. aeronautic and military history, especially during WWII.
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- Main Title: The Eagle, Volume 2, Number 6, Thursday, June 10, 1943
- Serial Title:The Eagle
Weekly newsletter published for employees of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Fort Worth Division containing work-related information, updates about employees, and other news.
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बॉलपॉइंट पेन डे : तो इस वजह से एक पत्रकार ने किया था बॉलपॉइंट पेन का अविष्कार
कानपुर। बॉलपॉइंट पेन का अविष्कार पत्रकार लैडिसलाव जोस बीरो ने किया था। 29 सितंबर 1899 को हंगरी के बुडापेस्ट में एक यहूदी परिवार में जन्में बीरो पेशे से एक पत्रकार, पेंटर और आविष्कारक थे।मिड डे की एक रिपोर्ट के मुताबिक वह फाउंटेन पेन के प्रयोग के दौरान स्याही और धब्बों से परेशान रहते थे।
लैडिसलाव जोस बीरो ने इस परेशानी से निकलने का निश्चय किया
ऐसे में एक बार लैडिसलाव जोस बीरो एक प्रेस में गए। वहां उन्होंने देखा कि अखबारों को कितनी कुशलता से मुद्रित किया जाता है और इनकी स्याही भी सूख जाती है। वहीं इसके विपरीत फाउंटेन पेन का लिखा काफी देर में सूखता था।वह काफी खुश हुए और इस परेशानी का हल निकालने का निश्चय किया।
भाई ग्योरगी की मदद से एक निब में स्याही की एक पतली फिल्म लगाई
लैडिसलाव जोस बीरो ने अपने भाई ग्योरगी बीरो की मदद ली। इस दौरान उन्होंने एक निब में स्याही की एक पतली फिल्म लगाई। इस दौरान जब निब का कागज के साथ संपर्क आती तो गेंद घूमने लगती और कार्टेज से स्याही प्राप्त करती थी। इससे लिखने का काम काफी अच्छा हुआ और उन्हें सफलता मिली।
बॉलपॉइंट पेन कई देशों में आज भी बीरो के नाम से ही जाना जाता है
लैडिसलाव जोस बीरो ने और ग्योरगी बीरो ने 1931 में बुडापेस्ट इंटरनेशनल फेयर में बॉलपॉइंट पेन का पहला प्रोटोटाइप प्रस्तुत किया। इसके बाद इस पेन को 1938 को बीरो नाम से पेटेंट करवाया था। खास बात तो यह है कि कई देशों में आज भी इस पेन को बीरो के नाम से ही जाना जाता है।
How to use Windows 10's File History backup featureMichael Homnick/IDG
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Windows 10’s File History is an easy way to get started with backing up your personal files since it comes built-in to your system.
File History takes snapshots of your files as you go and stores them on an external hard drive either connected over USB or your home network. Over time, File History builds up a library of past versions of your documents that you can recover if need be. Say, for example, you really liked a paragraph from the first draft of an essay, but you deleted it long ago and are now battling regret. You can dip into File History, retrieve the right version of your document, and copy the paragraph.
Windows 10’s File History is an essential part of any PC backup strategy, but it’s only
Editor's choice: Best backup drive
one part. Ideally, you’d have your files in three places: the working copy on your internal hard drive, a local backup that you can access straight away, and a remote backup that keeps your files safe offsite. That way, if anything ever happens to your house such as a fire, flood, or tornado, the third copy is still safely tucked away in the remote location.
The easiest way to take care of the remote backup is to use an online backup service. We’ve got a separate article dedicated to reviews and purchasing advice for online backup. While you’re at it, check out our look at the best external drives for backup, storage, and portability to get a quality drive for your local File History backups.
To get started with File History in the latest version of Windows 10, open the Settings app and go to Update & Security > Backup.
File History before it’s activated in Windows 10.
Once you’re there, hook up your external hard drive to Windows and then in the Settings app click the “+” next to Add a drive. You’ll see a prompt to choose an external drive, choose the one you want, and that’s it. File History is now archiving your data. An on/off slider will now appear under a new heading called “Automatically back up my files.”
Click on More options to change File History’s defaults.
By default, Windows 10’s File History will back up all the folders in your User folder, back up your files every hour (as long as the backup drive is available), and keep past copies of your files forever. To change any of those settings click on More options under the on/off slider.
File History via the Settings app makes it easy to remove folders from your backup list.
The next screen you’re taken to is called Backup options. Right at the top is an option to start a manual backup, and below that are drop-down menus to adjust how often you’d like to run your backup with choices ranging from every 10 minutes to once a day. If your backup drive is low on space, you can avoid having File History bug you by clicking on the drop-down menu under Keep my backups and select Until space is needed.
To add a folder to your backup, click the “+” under Back up these folders. To remove a folder, scroll down to find it, click on it to highlight, and then click Remove.
Towards the bottom of this screen (not pictured) you can also create a list of folders to specifically exclude, or stop backing up to the currently selected drive and choose another one—you can only have one designated backup drive at a time.
Once File History is enabled, there’s a handy trick to access older versions of a file: Right-click on a file in File Explorer, and then select Restore previous versions. This is the same as right-clicking the file and going to the Properties > Previous Versions window.
Windows 10 is full of nifty little features like this. For more tips, check out our list of the best tricks, tips and tweaks for Windows 10.
Ian is an independent writer based in Israel who has never met a tech subject he didn't like. He primarily covers Windows, PC and gaming hardware, video and music streaming services, social networks, and browsers. When he's not covering the news he's working on how-to tips for PC users, or tuning his eGPU setup.
The War Diary Of Will S. Arnett, 1st Lt. USAAF: June 10, 1943 Algiers: Going Home
The following story appears courtesy of and with thanks to Will Seaton Arnett, 1st Lt. USAAF and John S. Green.
Boy, I'm tired, been on the go all day getting things fixed up. It seems that I am responsible for the whole bunch. First I reported to A-1 to get our orders cut. Had to have them before we could get a priority rating and transport tickets. The orders were ready at 3 o'clock and by four we had our rating, but then came the stump.
At the air transport office they told me that we would have to wait until the 12th because all planes were full for Casablanca tomorrow. But that didn't work. Our rating is #2 and to keep from having to cancel some #3, they had to give us a special plane. So that was that.
Left Algiers this morning at 8:30 and arrived here at 1:20 and right off the bat without eating, I got transportation to town to see about that 4600 mile ride. I reported to Maj. Foster at the transportation building and in five minutes, we were booked for passage home on the West Point.
So for the first time in three days, I don't have anything to worry about.
We went to a show (Mrs. Miniver) in town tonight and it was really good.
Bridges and I spent the day in town with Alex and Wagg. They left four days before we did and are waiting on the same boat we are.
I think I've finally located M. J. I saw a fellow in the C. B.'s today on the street and asked him what outfit he was in and it's the same one M. J. is in and they are going home on the same boat. Boy, that will be wonderful!
I'll know in the morning because he is supposed to call me.
Marvin called me this morning at 10 o'clock, so I went out and spent the day with him. Had lunch and dinner with him, the first two good meal I've had in ages.
June 14, 1943 Aboard the West Point
Came aboard ship this afternoon at 3:30 and have spent the rest of the time looking it over and trying to find my way around and have been lost ever since. I located M. J. right off the bat and we've been together all afternoon.
It's just like a big hotel only a little more complicated.
June 15, 1943 Aboard the West Point
Marvin and I have spent the whole day just killing time and at 9 P. M. we shoved off. Right now we are about 100 miles out and I'm sitting in my stateroom holding on with both hands, well one anyway, trying to hold the ship steady.
Flying a plane and riding a boat is altogether a different sensation.
I'm expecting to get seasick any minute.
June 16, 1943 Aboard the West Point
Nothing but water and it's already getting boring and yet we've just started.
Marvin and I are together all the time when he isn't working. The rest of the time, I read or walk the deck.
June 17, 1943 Aboard the West Point
I saw my first flying fish today. They look a lot like a spitfire with their elliptical wings. They are small and can only stay over the water a few seconds.
We are still climbing that hill. Seem to be in the same place very morning when we wake up.
The ship blacks out every night at nine o'clock and there isn't a thing to do but hit the sack and try to stay in it. No smoking is allowed any place after blackout is sounded.
June 18, 1943 Aboard the West Point
Another long day and don't seem to be getting any place.
There is about 8,000 people on board with only two women and 3,800 of them are Italian and German prisoners. The Italian are more or less free to do as they please, but the Germans aren't given any freedom at all and are watched like hawks.
June 19, 1943 Aboard the West Point
Still trying to get over that hill
Nothing but flying fish and white caps. Saw a life boat adrift today.
Still sailing. The water has been exceptionally calm all day.
Found out today that we went almost to South America to avoid a submarine scare.
June 24, 1943 New York City
Landed in Boston at 11 o'clock and were on the train and on our way here by 12 o'clock and were in the Astor Hotel by 6 o'clock. There isn't enough words to express how glad I am to be here.
June 25, 1943 New York City
I've been buying clothes all day and sure am tired but I have a date with a model tonight that's gotta be taken care of.
June 26, 1943 New York City
My date last night was beautiful and a lot of fun. We took in several night clubs and finished the evening at Cafe Society -- morning rather.
Wagg invited Alex and I to his home in Lambertville, N. Y. for the day and we really had a wonderful time.
Came back to N. Y. City tonight.
We reported to Mitchell Field today and had a 30-day leave within three hours but we had a hell of a lot of walking to do and boy was it hot.
Bridges and I are together. we left New York at 1:25. We couldn't get a Pullman so had to take what we could get. The train is really crowded and it's gonna be tough trying to sleep.
This brings to a close my combat experience as a B-17 pilot. The past eleven months were exciting and full of experiences that I will always remember. Some of these experiences I would like to forget -- those that brought heartaches to others.
Ed. Note: My uncle was lucky that he was not assigned to the 8th Air Force , which took the brunt of the losses in the European Theater. If I remember correctly, about 1/4 of all American combat losses in the entire war occurred in the sky over Europe, in just three years, 1943 - 1945. He also missed out on the famous Romanian missions against the Polesti oil refineries they were so bad that the Medal of Honor was awarded to one of the pilots. These events happened later in the war.
However I know with pride that had he been over Germany, had he been over Romania, he would have served there just as he served over France and Italy - with honor and distinction, flying bravely into the maelstrom of air combat. He might never have returned, but he would have gone in.
Men and women go into combat thinking they will get through it alive and victorious. However, there occasionally comes a time in battle when you realize that you won't make it, that you cannot possibly win. How you act in this instance is the razor's edge dividing line between a great nation and a wanna-be-great nation. It only really shows up when the odds are impossible. These days America is the only Superpower left, and many people forget what we can do when we are impossibly down. It is worth remembering there are many images that evoke what the American fighting spirit is about.
Think: John Paul Jones continuing the fight against superior odds. Think: 182 men at the Alamo holding off 5000 enemy soldiers until the last defender was gone. Think: 15,000 men of General Picket's division charging up Seminary Ridge into annihilation. Think: Flying old and slow torpedo planes into the cream of the Japanese navy during the battle of Midway. Think: the single word "Nuts" in response to a surrender demand in the Battle of the bulge. Think: tiny destroyers and destroyer escorts engaging the entire Japanese battleship fleet during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Think: thousands of young lives given in B17's, B24's, and B25's over the European Continent.
Think: Will Seaton Arnett, 1St Lt., US Army Air Force.
These men did an amazing thing to fly day after day into utter terror, droning on and on through flak and fighters, unable to move to defend themselves until the bombs were dropped and the job was done. That is a special courage that is the legacy of this country and it's fighting spirit.
pecial footnote to any future oppressors:
Whether it be in Southwest Asia, Europe, or anywhere on this globe, don't underestimate what a free American people can and will do to preserve their way of life. You won't live to regret the mistake.
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The first piece of evidence that the warming over the past few decades isn’t part of a natural cycle is how fast the change is happening. The biggest temperature swings our planet has experienced in the past million years are the ice ages. Based on a combination of paleoclimate data and models, scientists estimate that when ice ages have ended in the past, it has taken about 5,000 years for the planet to warm between 4 and 7 degrees Celsius. The warming of the past century—0.7 degrees Celsius—is roughly eight times faster than the ice-age-recovery warming on average.
The second reason that scientists think the current warming is not from natural influences is that, over the past century, scientists from all over the world have been collecting data on natural factors that influence climate—things like changes in the Sun’s brightness, major volcanic eruptions, and cycles such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. These observations have failed to show any long-term changes that could fully account for the recent, rapid warming of Earth’s temperature.
Finally, scientists know that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that it is released into the air when coal and other fossil fuels burn. Paleoclimate data show that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are higher than they have been in the past 800,000 years. There is no plausible explanation for why such high levels of carbon dioxide would not cause the planet to warm.
This entry was posted on Tuesday, May 4th, 2010 at 4:26 pm and is filed under Climate: Human Impact, Global Warming: Causes. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.
3. Battle of Midway, June 1942
The Japanese planned to eliminate the United States’ position as a strategic power in the Pacific by launching the Battle of Midway. At the start of the battle, the Americans were outnumbered about 2 to 1. Between June 4 and 7, 1942, the Battle of Midway began with the US side commanded by Admirals Chester Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance and the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondo. Largely due to developments in codebreaking, the US was able to predict the date and location of the attack, giving them the upper hand.
The Japanese plan was also a failure due to their incorrect assumptions about the American mindset. All of the four large Japanese aircraft carriers which were a part of the force that attacked Pearl Harbor were sunk while the US only lost the carrier Yorktown and a destroyer. Six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Americans had earned a decisive victory over the Japanese and gained an offensive position for the Allies. Military historian John Keegan called the Battle of Midway one of the most stunning and decisive moments in the history of naval warfare.
10. 60,000 German soldiers were trapped in the Falaise Pocket
By early August, it became apparent that German Army Group B, having thrust into the Allied lines during Operation Luttich, was vulnerable to envelopment. Monty ordered British and Canadian forces, now pressing on Falaise, to push south-east toward Trun and Chambois in the Dives Valley. The Americans were to head for Argentan. Between them, the Allies would have the Germans trapped.
On 16 August, Hitler finally ordered a withdrawal but it was too late. By then, the only available escape route measured just 2 miles, between Chambois and Saint Lambert.
During a period of desperate fighting in the ever-narrowing escape route, thousands of German soldiers were able to break free from the pocket. But when Canadian forces joined up with the 1st Polish Armoured Division, who held the vital Hill 262 for two days while cut off from all assistance, the escape route was completely shut.
About 60,000 German soldiers remained inside the pocket, 50,000 of whom were taken prisoner.
With the German defence of Normandy finally broken, the route to Paris lay open for the Allies. Four days later, on 25 August, the French capital was liberated and the Battle of Normandy came to an end.