What was the name for a group of 12 men in old England responsible for each others actions?

What was the name for a group of 12 men in old England responsible for each others actions?


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I remember learning in school about how men in England were grouped together in a group of 12 or so and were responsible for eachothers actions (breaking law, debt, etc). What was the name of this practice?


Is it possible that you're referring to the Frankpledge?

That wasn't a group of 12 men, but it was a group of men over the age of 12. Their households were collectively responsible for one another's conduct.

For completeness, both @RazieMah & @andy256 point out that the term you're seeking may be tithing, which is a territorial unit (1/10th of a hundred) of people who swear the frankpledge. Credit to them, but I'm updating the answer so that it is a better reference.


The Mill Girls of Lowell

Who were the “mill girls”? The term “mill girls” was occasionally used in antebellum newspapers and periodicals to describe the young Yankee women, generally 15 - 30 years old, who worked in the large cotton factories. They were also called “female operatives.” Female textile workers often described themselves as mill girls, while affirming the virtue of their class and the dignity of their labor. During early labor protests, they asserted that they were “the daughters of freemen” whose rights could not be “trampled upon with impunity.”

Despite the hardship of mill work, women remained an important part of the textile workforce for many years. In the late 19th century, women held nearly two-thirds of all textile jobs in Lowell, with many immigrant women joining Yankee mill girls in the textile industry


Anglo-Saxon Law and Order

At the heart of the tenth-century state was the oath, taken by all freemen from the age of 12, to abstain from and denounce any major crime. This common oath enshrined the sense of social community and responsibility that underpinned the law. In this light, theft was seen as an act of disloyalty. If you had broken your oath and committed a serious crime your entire kin could be punished. In the old days the local assembly or the king's court would try you. In the new Anglo-Saxon state there was a hierarchy of courts in each shire and borough, and revamped local courts known as 'hundred' courts.

The presiding officials of these courts were, in effect, local agents of the king - royal appointees. Local cases would be heard in the hundred courts and it was the obligation of the hundred to find the miscreant and bring him back to face justice and, if necessary, to punish the kin.

The hundred would organise the pursuit of notable criminals who fled, and punishment could include exile - you could be transported with your kin group to a completely different part of the country. Harsh methods, to be sure, but these were harsh times.

Crime and violence were the central problem for the early English kings, all the more so as they were Christians who saw it as their job to be Christ's vicar on earth. In one of his law codes, King Athelstan is recorded apologising for the bad state of public order: 'I am sorry my peace is kept so badly. My advisors say I have put up with it too long'.

'King Athelstan. was concerned about the number of young people being executed . '

With brutal punishments at their disposal, it would have been easy for a king to respond with an iron fist. Which makes the mitigating touches of humanity that we occasionally find all the more touching. King Athelstan, for example, is reported saying to his councillors that he was concerned about the number of young people being executed under the death penalty, 'as he sees everywhere is the case'.

In his day, the penalty could be enforced on anyone 12 years old or over, but the king raised the age of criminal responsibility to 16 because, as he said simply, 'it is too cruel'. That, remember, is around 930, while as late as the early 19th century there are cases of ten, nine and even eight year olds being executed for sheep stealing!

The story provides a salutary warning against having a patronising attitude to the people of the past, or assuming our ancestors of 1,000 years ago were more cruel, or less civilised, than we are. This was a genuine effort to create a humane government, however unpalatable some of its methods may seem to us now, and however ineffectual the king sometimes admitted they were at the time.


7th Juror’s main concern in the case is whether or not it will end before his ball game, for which he has tickets. He sells marmalade and is generally indifferent to the case. He changes his vote to “not guilty” simply because the tide of opinion switches, and he wants the deliberations to be over.

He is the only juror who votes “not guilty” at the first vote. He is discontent with the way the trial was handled and wants them to discuss the evidence in greater detail. Met with much opposition, he continues to advocate for the boy. We learn that he is an architect, by trade.


Studentsqueries's Blog

Q. 1. What do you know about Shakespeare as a Sonneteer?

Ans.Shakespeare has written one hundred and fifty four sonnets in English.

The sonnets of Shakespeare were published in 1609. shakespearean sonnet

has three stanzas of four lines and in the end a couplet. Its rhyme scheme is ab

Q. 2. Why has the Elizabethan Age been called the age of singing

Ans. Elizabethan age was full of writers of songs and lyrics. Many other

forms of verse were attempted such as the epic romance, the pastoral, the

verse, tale, the elegy, the sonnet and the satrie.

Q. 3. Name some of the important song writers of the age of Elizabeth.

Ans. The important song writers of the age of Elizabeth are—Christopher

Marlowe, Drayton, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Edward Spenser.

Q. 4. What are the chief features of the age of Elizabeth?

Ans. The chief features of the age of Elizabeth are spontancity, lyricism,

spirit of adventure, love pageantry, unsatiated delight in beauty, roaring

imagination and a pervading patriotism.

Q. 5. Name some important historical events of the age of Elizabeth.

Ans. The influence of the Renaissance gave rise to humanism and

ultimately to Reformation. It went a long way to improve the system of

education. It provided the contemporary men of letters with a Renaissance of

wonder, a background which made them look at the world all anew, the Brave

Q. 7. What is the plan of ‘Shepherd’s Calender’?

Ans.Shepherd’s Calender is divided into twelve parts, one for each month

of the year Edmund Spencser writes on his unfortunate love for a certain

mysterious Rosalind. The Shephard’s Calender is a pastoral poem of artificial

Q. 8. Who called Edmund Spenser ‘the poets’ poet’?

Ans. Charles Lamb called Edmund Spenser the poets’ poet.

Q. 9. What is the plan of ‘Faerie Queene’?

Ans. Edmund Spenser explains the plan of the ‘Faerie Queene’ in a

prefatory letter to his friend Sir Walter Raligh. The plan called for a twelve

day feast held by Glouana, Queen of Fairyland, on each of these days a certain

knight at her command undertook a particular adventure. Spenser projected

twelve books but only six were published during his lifetime and portions of

the seventh were published after his death.

Q. 10. What is the theme of the ‘Faerie Queene’?

Ans. The main aim of the Faerie Queene, says Spenser, is to fashion a

gentleman or noble person in virtuous and gentle discipline. The Book is an

allegory and can be treated on different levels. The plan called for a twelve

day feast held by the Queen of Fairyland.

Q. 11. What is the political and historical significance of Spenser’s

Ans. At the political level the main theme of Spenser’sThe Faerie Queene

is the glorification of Queen Elizabeth and the State. Edmund Spenser followes

the contmporary practice of flattering the Queen.

Q. 12. What is a Spenserian Stanza?

Ans. spenserian stanza is a nine line stanza rhyming ab ab bc bcc. The last

time is called Alexanderine. It is a line of six iambic feet instead of five.

Q. 13. What are the demerits of Spenser’s poetry?

Ans. The chief demerits of Spenser’s poetry are lack of humour, want of

dramatic constructive power, and deficiency in realism. Spenser shows an

excessive flattery of the Queen. His diction is archaic and is sometimes cloying.

Q. 14. What is the plan of Amoretti?

Ans. Amoretti has a group of eighty eight sonnets describing the progress

of the poet’s love for Elizabeth Boyle whom he married in 1594.

Q. 15. What do you know of Spenser’s Epithalamion?

Ans. Epithalamion is the finest of Edmund Spenser’s smaller poems. It is

the noblest wedding poem in the language written on the marriage of Spenser

Q. 16. Name the collections in which Sir Philip Sidney’s sonnets are

Ans. The soonets by Sir Philip Sidney are collected in Astrophel and

Stella inspired by the daughter of Lord Essex.

Q. 17. Who are called the University Wits?

Ans. John Lyly, Thomas Kyd, Robert Greene, George Peele and

Christonpher Marlowe are called University Wits.

Q. 18. What are the important dramas of John Lyly?

Ans. The important dramas of John Lyly are—The Woman in the Moon,

Alexander and Campaspe, Sapho and Phao.

Q. 19. What are the important plays of Christopher Marlowe?

Ans. The important plays of christopher Marlowe are—Tamburlaine the

Great, The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. The Jew of Malta, Edward II

and The Tragedy of Dido, Queen of Carthage.

Q. 20. What do you know about Old Wives Tale?

Ans.Old Wives Tale is written by George Peele. This play is full of framatic

irony and its diction is realistic.

Q. 21. Tell us the imprtance of Christopher Marlowe’s Edward II.

Ans. Edward II is the first Elizabethan drama, which paved the way for

the historical plays of Shakespeare.

Q. 22. What do you mean by ‘Marlowe’s Mighty Line’?

Ans. About Christopher Marlowe’s blank verse, Ben Jonson coined the

phrase ‘Marlowe’s Mighty Line’.

Q. 23. Can you justify the statement, ‘No Marlowe, No Shakespeare?

Ans. William Shakespeare borrowed blank verse and the conception of

tragedy from Christopher Marlowe and became what he could not have become.

Q. 24. What are the main characteristics of Shakespeare’s Comedies?

Ans. The Comedies of Shakespeare are a peculiar blend of realism and

romance, of tragedy and comedy. They are full of music and song, fools and

The Age of Shakespeare (1558-1625)

clowns, love and humour. They are in fact tragi-comedies rather than pure

Q. 25. What is Shakespeare’s Conception of Tragedy?

Ans. AShakespearean tragedy represents a tale of suffering and calamity,

ultimately leading to the death of the hero. The tragedy arises out of a particular

flaw in the character of the hero, which is called ‘fatal flaw’. In this way the

hero falls because he has some marked imperfection or defect.

Q. 26. What do you mean by Alexanderine?

Ans. Alexanderine is an Iambic line of twelve syllables.

Q. 27. Name some poets who used the Spenserian stanza?

Ans. P.B. Shelley, John Keats, and Lord Alfred Tennyson are such poets.

Q. 28. What did Arnold mean when he said that ‘others abide our

question but Shakespeare is free’?

Ans. By this statement, Mathew Arnold means that Shakespeare is beyond

the marks of interrogation and Arnold wants to emphasize Shakespeare’s

universality. Ben Jonson also commented, “Shakespeare was not of an age but

Q. 29. Ruskin has commented that Shakespeare has no heroes but

only heroines? Do you agree?

Ans. This statement is true about his comedies. The tragic heroes of

Shakespeare are great and noble and far more impressive, if a comparison is

Q. 30. Name the important dramatists of the Post-Shakespearean

Ans. The important post-Shakespearean dramatists are—Champan,

Marston, Thomas Dekker, Thomas Heywood, Thomas Middleton, Francis

Beaumont, John Fletcher, Cyril Tourneur and John Webster.

Q. 31. What were the reasons responsible for the decline of drama

during the Jacobean period or during the post Shakespearean period?

Ans. The reasons for the decline of drama during the post-Shakespearean

period—are loss of national appeal, exhaustion of creative spirit, the Puritan

opposition and moral decline.

Q. 32. What do you know about Ben Jonson’s Theory of Drama?

Ans. Ben Jonson forced on following the three Unities, viz. Unity of Time,

Unity of Place, Unity of Action. He based his drams on the medieval theory of

Q. 33. What do you know about Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia?

Ans. Sir Philip Sidney wrote ‘Arcadia’ a pastoral romance for the purpose

Q. 34. Name some important prose writers of the Elizabethan Age?

Ans.The important prose writers of the Elizabethan Age are Elyot, George

Cavendish, Cheke, Sir Thomas Wilson and Roger Ascham.

Q. 35. What do you know about John Lyly as a writer of Prose?

Ans. As a prose writer John Lyly has written two works, Euphuers and

Q. 36. What do you know about SirPhilip Sidney’s book ‘An Apology

Ans. In this book Sir Philip Sidney goes on to defend poetry against the

charges brought against it by various critics, the most important of them is that

a poet is a liar. At this charge Sir Philip Sidney says that the poet is not a liar

for Sir Sidney is full of virtue breeding delightfulness.

Q. 37. What SirPhilip Sidney has to say about Stephen Gesson’s attack

Ans. Sir Philip Sidney’s Aplogie for Poetrie was compiled as an answer

to Stephen Gosson’s attack that poet is liar. Sir Philip Sidney has defended

poetry with some really important and significant practical criticism.

Q. 38. Name some Elizabethan Critics.

Ans. The famous elizabethan critics are—Sir Thomas Elyot, Stephen

Gosson, Thomas Sidney and Ben Jonson.

Q. 39. Name the last plays of Shakespeare.

Ans. Shakespeares last plays are Cymbeline, The Tempest, The Winter’s

Tale, Pericles, and Henry VIII.

Q. 40. What is Comedy of Manners?

Ans. The Comedy of Manners was originated in France. Moleire said that

the matter of true comedy must be correction of social absurdities. The

amusement arises mostly from the portrayal of current fortess or minor abuses.

Ben Jonson is the real founder of the Comedy of Manners because he give a

heightened picture of sixteenth century society.

Q. 41. What are the important Characteristics of Euphism?

Ans.(1) There are many classical allusions, mostly from Roman and Greek

(2) There are a number of rhetorical devices such as alliteration and

antithesis. There is excessive use of antithesis in which the opposite idea is

emphasised by balance of sharply contrasting words, sentences or clauses.

Q. 42. What is the difference between Comedy of Manners and

Ans. A Comedy of Humours presents the oddities and idiosyncracies of a

character. On the other hand, a Comedy of Manners, represents the vices of the

society and exposes the hypocracies and shames of the individuals.

The Age of Shakespeare (1558-1625)

Q. 43. Which are the other writers of romance besides John Lyly and

Ans. Thomas Lodge and Green are other important writers of romance

Q 44. What were the forms of prose in the age of Shakespeare?

Ans.In the age of Shakespeare, there were dramas, prose romances, literary

criticism, essays and history.

Q. 45. Why is Francis Bacon called ‘the wisest, the brightest and the

Ans. Francis Bacom was the wisest of mankind because he had written

his essays full of wisdom. He was the brightest because he was an innovator of

the prose style. Bacon was also charged with taking bribes and practising corrupt


Names Of The 12 Disciples

The twelve disciples are known as:

    (known as Peter) (Peter&rsquos brother) (son of Zebedee) (James&rsquo brother) (the tax collector) (son of Alphaeus) (also known as Judas, son of James and Lebbaeus) (the zealot also known as Simon the Canaanite)

Simon: The First Disciple (aka St. Peter)

Simon (known as Peter): Peter (also referred to as Saint Peter by the Catholic church) made his home in Bethsaida, a small town on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. Peter is generally the first of Jesus&rsquo disciples to be listed when naming off the twelve disciples and he is the most well-known disciple referenced in The Bible.

Peter is characterized as a strong-willed and courageous man however, at times he could be quick to speak, impulsive, and impetuous. Peter seems to embody every man in his strength and weakness. Peter held a firm belief in the teachings of Christ and made up one of the three closest disciples to Christ.

Historical evidence points to the fact that during the time of Nero, Peter was crucified upside down. Crucifixion was the general means of death for Christians during the Roman empire and when condemned to death Peter requested to be crucified upside down because he did not feel worthy to perish in the same way as Jesus.

Andrew: The First Apostle Called By Jesus (Peter&rsquos Brother)

Andrew (also referred to as Saint Andrew by the Catholic church) is the brother of Peter and as such was also born in Bethsaida. Andrew served as a disciple of John the Baptist and lived as a fisherman. Andrew left his life as a fisherman to serve as one of the two disciples of John the Baptist. While John the Baptist was a great prophet he sent Andrew to Jesus referring to him as the &ldquoLamb of God&rdquo.

Andrew is most noted for being the first Apostle called by Christ and spent his life spreading the word of Jesus Christ. The death of Andrew is not referred to in The Bible but it is believed by many that Andrew was hung on an &ldquoX&rdquo shaped cross for two days before succumbing to death, this is why the &ldquoX&rdquo shaped cross is referred to as the St. Andrew&rsquos cross.

James Of Galilee (Son Of Zebedee)

James (son of Zebedee, older brother of John): James (also referred to as Saint James by the Catholic church) is known for being the son of Zebedee and the brother of John, he hailed from Galilee. James was a fisherman with Peter and John and is always referred to in The Bible as the son of Zebedee in order to prevent confusion among other James&rsquo in The Bible (there are many!) Jesus nicknamed both James and John &ldquoSons of Thunder,&rdquo this nickname is thought to come from the fact that they both were such stormy personalities. They were easily angered and quick to judge enemies of the Lord.

James was one of the three disciples closest to Jesus and as a result, he witnessed many magnificent events that the other nine disciples were not allowed to see. The death of James is clearly spoken of in The Bible, as the first of Jesus&rsquo disciples to give up his life in martyrdom James was slain by a sword.

John The Apostle: Wrote Five Bible Books (James&rsquo Brother)

John (also referred to as Saint John by the Catholic church) the apostle is sometimes confused with John the Baptist when these men were two very different figured in Biblical history. John the Apostle was the younger brother of James and also a fisherman. John is known for writing five books of The Bible.

John, like Andrew, served as the second disciple to John the Baptist. John served as the third disciple to be included in the circle of three disciples closest to Christ and as such he was witness to many miracles of Christ that the other nine disciples were not allowed to see.

John was particularly devoted to Jesus and is claimed to be the closest of all twelve disciples to Jesus, never straying far from him. John is often found in the accompaniment of Peter in The Bible and it was Peter and John who discovered the empty tomb of Jesus after his resurrection. John was the last of the twelve disciples to die and the only disciple who did not die in martyrdom he is believed to have died from old age after being exiled to Patmos.

Phillip The Apostle

Phillip (also referred to as Saint Phillip by the Catholic church) was born in Bethsaida like Peter and Andrew and is often referred to as Phillip the Apostle in order to distinguish him from the Phillip that occurs in Acts. Phillip was slow to recognize Jesus however, once he found Jesus he was quick to share His greatness with his friend Nathanael Bartholomew.

Both Phillip and Bartholomew are frequently named together as they frequently appear together and speak together in The Bible. Phillip is not mentioned a great deal throughout The Bible and not too much is known about him in-depth. While Phillip&rsquos death is not detailed in The Bible it is believed that he died the death of a Christian martyr.

Bartholomew (Friend Of Phillip)

Bartholomew (Nathanael Bartholomew): Bartholomew (also referred to as Saint Bartholomew by the Catholic church) was a friend of Phillip and brought to see the greatness of Christ by Phillip. Both Bartholomew and Phillip are often seen together and as a result, they are generally lumped together when spoken of in any detail.

Bartholomew is known for being an honest man who was convinced by Jesus&rsquo greatness upon his meeting with Him and learning that Jesus saw him even before he came to Him. Much as with Phillip, Bartholomew is not referred to in detail in The Bible and so not too much is known about him. While his death is not talked of in The Bible it is believed that Bartholomew too received the death of a martyr as a result of his firm belief in Christianity and his intent on spreading the word of Christ.

Thomas: &ldquoDoubting Thomas&rdquo

Thomas (also referred to as Saint Thomas by the Catholic church) is thought to have been a twin although there is no mention of his twin in The Bible. The phrase &ldquodoubting Thomas&rdquo comes from Thomas the disciple in that he was particularly slow to believe in Christ. Thomas is also characterized by being somewhat gloomy and easily discouraged. While he was much of a pessimist Thomas was a full believer in Christ and followed Him loyally throughout His life. Thomas is known for being unable to see the forest for the trees and Jesus often had to help him to see the whole forest. Thomas is the one disciple who was not present on the first Easter Sunday. Thomas was the disciple who refused to believe in resurrection but he went on to spread the word of Christ until his death. It is believed that Thomas died the death of a martyr but this cannot be verified.

Matthew: The Tax Collector

Matthew (also referred to as Saint Matthew by the Catholic church) is known for being a publican (or tax collector) which is unusual in that most of the disciples were fishermen by trade. Due to his work as a tax collector, Matthew was seen as filth among people, classified as the lowest of the low for working alongside the Romans in collecting taxes, and at the time being under Roman rule was the most hated thing of all. In addition during this time many tax collectors were dishonest giving people even more reason to hate them. Matthew always refers to himself as Matthew the tax collector or Matthew the publican making note of the fact that he was once a sinner even though he followed the path of Christ. Matthew was particularly self-absorbed at the time he was called by Jesus to serve as His disciple. Upon meeting Christ however, Matthew forgot about being self-centered and began to consider others. Matthew is recognized for being the first writer of the first Gospel which is now referred to as the Gospel of Matthew.

James (Son Of Alphaeus)

James (son of Alphaeus) (also known as Saint James the Less by the Catholic church) is one of the disciples that very little is known about. James&rsquo father shared his name with the father of Matthew and it is possible that they were brothers however, this cannot be known for certain because there was much reuse of names in this time. James the son of Alphaeus is thought to be the same man as referred to as &ldquoJames the Less&rdquo as a way for the disciples to distinguish between the two James&rsquo however this is not known for certain and should not be assumed.

Thaddeus

Thaddeus (also known as Judas (but not Judas the Betrayer), son of James and Lebbaeus): Thaddeus (also referred to as Saint Jude in the Catholic church) is believed to have been the nickname or surname of Judas. There is some confusion as to whether Thaddeus was the brother or son of James but it is known that they were related. Thaddeus is known as a disciple of three names being that he is referred to as Thaddeus, Judas, and Lebbaeus. Thaddeus was not a leader of the twelve disciples and he is not mentioned often throughout The Bible.

Simon: The Canaanite

Simon (the zealot also known as Simon the Canaanite): Simon (also known as Saint Simon in the Catholic church) is the least known of all of the twelve Apostles. The interesting thing about Simon is that he is never mentioned throughout The Bible, except to list his name as one of the twelve disciples. The word Canaanite as used to describe Simon is actually a term that relates to his position as a member of the zealots, a political party.

Judas Iscariot: The Betrayer

Judas Iscariot &ndash Judas Iscariot is always the last disciple placed on the list of twelve. Judas Iscariot is often referred to as Judas the Betrayer and he is known, and will forever be known for the one act of betrayal of the Lord. Though Judas was chosen to serve as one of Jesus&rsquo disciples he eventually betrayed him while wearing the mask of a friend. Even when given the chance to reveal that he was plotting against Jesus, Judas Iscariot kissed Jesus and Jesus called him &ldquofriend&rdquo. Judas was the disciple who did not truly believe in the love of Jesus and when the chief priests were looking for a way to arrest Jesus Judas provided them with that way by identifying Jesus with a kiss in return for thirty pieces of silver. Judas is frequently referred to as the only disciple who was separated from God in his death as he never had salvation as a result of his betrayal, thievery, and lies.

It is also noted that in the twelve apostles Judas Iscariot the betrayer of Jesus Christ is replaced by Matthias however, there is an argument amongst religious zealots who believe that Paul would have been the replacement of Judas Iscariot and not Matthias.

Matthias: The 12th Apostle

Matthias (also known as Saint Matthias in the Catholic church) was chosen by the remaining eleven disciples to replace the betrayer, Judas Iscariot before Jesus&rsquo resurrection. The scriptural recommendation was for twelve disciples and so Peter declared that they must choose another to take the place of Judas Iscariot. Matthias was chosen as the twelfth Apostle since he was present with Jesus Christ during his time on Earth as well as through his crucifixion. While two men were chosen to take the twelfth place in the Apostles lots were drawn and Matthias was selected as the twelfth and final Apostle.

Paul: The Other Candidate For 12th Apostle

Paul (known as St Paul of the Gentiles in the Catholic church) is the choice of many Christians to replace Judas Iscariot as the twelfth Apostle. Paul was known as a persecutor of Christians and a Roman citizen until his conversion to Christianity. Paul is known for three missionary journeys during which he preached the word of Christ and some believe he would have been selected by Jesus Himself to replace Judas Iscariot after His death.


Aftermath

News of the arrest spread quickly throughout London and people lit bonfires – a traditional act - to celebrate the treason being thwarted. The plotters also heard, spread the news to each other and hastily left for the Midlands…apart from Francis Tresham, who seems to have been ignored. By the evening of November 5th the fleeing plotters had met up with those congregating for rebellion at Dunchurch, and at one stage around a hundred men were present. Unfortunately for them, many had only ever been told of the rebellion and were disgusted when they learned of the gunpowder plot some left immediately, others slipped away throughout the evening.

A discussion on what to do next saw the group leave for sources of weapons and a secure area: Catesby was convinced they could still stir the Catholics into an uprising. However, they hemorrhaged numbers as they traveled, the less implicated men growing dispirited by what they found: scores of Catholics horrified at them, with few offering aid. They were less than forty by the day's end.

Back in London, Guy Fawkes had refused to speak about his companions. This staunch demeanor impressed the King, but he ordered Fawkes to be tortured on November 6th, and Fawkes was broken by November 7th. During the same period Sir John Popham, the Lord Chief Justice, raided the homes of every Catholic known to have suddenly left, including that of Ambrose Rookwood. He soon identified Catesby, Rookwood, and the Wright and Wintour brothers as suspects Francis Tresham was also arrested.

On Thursday 7th the fleeing plotters reached Holbeach House in Staffordshire, home of Stephen Littleton. Having discovering that an armed government force was close behind, they prepared for battle, but not before sending Littleton and Thomas Wintour to seek help from a neighboring Catholic relative they were refused. Hearing this, Robert Wintour and Stephen Littleton fled together and Digby fled with a few servants. Meanwhile, Catesby tried to dry gunpowder in front of the fire a stray spark caused an explosion which badly injured both him and John Wright.

The government stormed the house later that day. Kit Wright, John Wright, Robert Catesby and Thomas Percy were all killed, while Thomas Wintour and Ambrose Rookwood were injured and captured. Digby was caught soon after. Robert Wintour and Littleton remained at large for several weeks but were eventually caught too. The captives were taken to the Tower of London and their houses were searched and plundered.

The government inquiry soon spread to the arrest and questioning of many more suspects, including the plotters families', friends and even distant acquaintances: simply having met the conspirators at an unfortunate time or place led to interrogation. Lord Mordant, who had employed Robert Keyes and planned to be absent from Parliament, Lord Montague, who had employed Guy Fawkes over a decade before, and The Earl of Northumberland - Percy's employer and patron - found themselves in the Tower.

The trial of the main plotters began on January 6th, 1606, by which time Francis Tresham had already died in prison all were found guilty (they were guilty, but these were show trials and the result was never in doubt). Digby, Grant, Robert Wintour, and Bates were hung, drawn and quartered on January 29th at St. Paul's Churchyard, while Thomas Wintour, Robert Keyes, Guy Fawkes and Ambrose Rookwood were similarly executed on January 30th at the Old Palace Yard Westminster. These were far from the only executions, as investigators slowly worked their way down through the tiers of supporters, men who had promised aid to the rebellion such as Stephen Littleton. Men with no real connections also suffered: Lord Mordant was fined £6,666 and died in Fleet debtors’ prison in 1609, while the Earl of Northumberland was fined the colossal sum of £30,000 and imprisoning him at the king’s leisure. He was freed in 1621.

The plot provoked strong feelings and the majority of the nation reacted with horror at the sheer indiscriminate killing planned but, despite the fears of Francis Tresham and others, the Gunpowder Plot was not followed by a violent attack on the Catholics, from the government or the people James even acknowledged that a few fanatics had been responsible. Admittedly Parliament – which finally met in 1606 – did introduce more laws against recusants, and the plot contributed to another Oath of Allegiance. But these actions were motivated as much by an existing need to appease England's anti-Catholic majority and keep Catholic numbers low than revenge for the plot, and the laws were poorly enforced amongst Catholics loyal to the crown. Instead, the government used the trial to vilify the already illegal Jesuits.

On January 21st, 1606, a Bill for an annual public thanksgiving was introduced into Parliament. It remained in force until 1859.


What was the name for a group of 12 men in old England responsible for each others actions? - History

V ictory in the French and Indian War was costly for the British. At the war's conclusion in 1763, King George III and his government looked to taxing the American colonies as a way of recouping their war costs. They were also looking for ways to reestablish control over the colonial governments that had become increasingly independent while the Crown was distracted by the war. Royal ineptitude compounded the problem. A series of actions including the Stamp Act (1765), the Townsend Acts (1767) and the Boston Massacre (1770) agitated the colonists, straining relations with the mother country. But it was the Crown's attempt to tax tea that spurred the colonists to action and laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.


Colonialists attack,
tar and feather
a hapless tax collector
The colonies refused to pay the levies required by the Townsend Acts claiming they had no obligation to pay taxes imposed by a Parliament in which they had no representation. In response, Parliament retracted the taxes with the exception of a duty on tea - a demonstration of Parliament's ability and right to tax the colonies. In May of 1773 Parliament concocted a clever plan. They gave the struggling East India Company a monopoly on the importation of tea to America. Additionally, Parliament reduced the duty the colonies would have to pay for the imported tea. The Americans would now get their tea at a cheaper price than ever before. However, if the colonies paid the duty tax on the imported tea they would be acknowledging Parliament's right to tax them. Tea was a staple of colonial life - it was assumed that the colonists would rather pay the tax than deny themselves the pleasure of a cup of tea.

The colonists were not fooled by Parliament's ploy. When the East India Company sent shipments of tea to Philadelphia and New York the ships were not allowed to land. In Charleston the tea-laden ships were permitted to dock but their cargo was consigned to a warehouse where it remained for three years until it was sold by patriots in order to help finance the revolution.

In Boston, the arrival of three tea ships ignited a furious reaction. The crisis came to a head on December 16, 1773 when as many as 7,000 agitated locals milled about the wharf where the ships were docked. A mass meeting at the Old South Meeting House that morning resolved that the tea ships should leave the harbor without payment of any duty. A committee was selected to take this message to the Customs House to force release of the ships out of the harbor. The Collector of Customs refused to allow the ships to leave without payment of the duty. Stalemate. The committee reported back to the mass meeting and a howl erupted from the meeting hall. It was now early evening and a group of about 200 men, some disguised as Indians, assembled on a near-by hill. Whopping war chants, the crowd marched two-by-two to the wharf, descended upon the three ships and dumped their offending cargos of tea into the harbor waters.

Most colonists applauded the action while the reaction in London was swift and vehement. In March 1774 Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts which among other measures closed the Port of Boston. The fuse that led directly to the explosion of American independence was lit.

George Hewes was a member of the band of "Indians" that boarded the tea ships that evening. His recollection of the event was published some years later. We join his story as the group makes its way to the tea-laden ships:

"It was now evening, and I immediately dressed myself in the costume of an Indian, equipped with a small hatchet, which I and my associates denominated the tomahawk, with which, and a club, after having painted my face and hands with coal dust in the shop of a blacksmith, I repaired to Griffin's wharf, where the ships lay that contained the tea. When I first appeared in the street after being thus disguised, I fell in with many who were dressed, equipped and painted as I was, and who fell in with me and marched in order to the place of our destination.


The Boston Tea Party
When we arrived at the wharf, there were three of our number who assumed an authority to direct our operations, to which we readily submitted. They divided us into three parties, for the purpose of boarding the three ships which contained the tea at the same time. The name of him who commanded the division to which I was assigned was Leonard Pitt. The names of the other commanders I never knew. We were immediately ordered by the respective commanders to board all the ships at the same time, which we promptly obeyed. The commander of the division to which I belonged, as soon as we were on board the ship, appointed me boatswain, and ordered me to go to the captain and demand of him the keys to the hatches and a dozen candles. I made the demand accordingly, and the captain promptly replied, and delivered the articles but requested me at the same time to do no damage to the ship or rigging. We then were ordered by our commander to open the hatches and take out all the chests of tea and throw them overboard, and we immediately proceeded to execute his orders, first cutting and splitting the chests with our tomahawks, so as thoroughly to expose them to the effects of the water.

In about three hours from the time we went on board, we had thus broken and thrown overboard every tea chest to be found in the ship, while those in the other ships were disposing of the tea in the same way, at the same time. We were surrounded by British armed ships, but no attempt was made to resist us.

. The next morning, after we had cleared the ships of the tea, it was discovered that very considerable quantities of it were floating upon the surface of the water and to prevent the possibility of any of its being saved for use, a number of small boats were manned by sailors and citizens, who rowed them into those parts of the harbor wherever the tea was visible, and by beating it with oars and paddles so thoroughly drenched it as to render its entire destruction inevitable."

References:
Hawkes, James A, Retrospect of the Boston Tea-Party, with a Memoir of George R. T. Hewes. (1834) reprinted in Commager, Henry Steele, Morris Richard B., The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six vol I (1958) Labaree, Benjamin Woods, The Boston Tea Party (1964).


What Did the Daughters of Liberty Do?

The Daughters of Liberty didn’t join in on the public protests and riots incited by the Sons of Liberty in 1765. Instead, they organized and participated in boycotts and helped manufacture goods when non-importation agreements caused shortages.

In August of 1768, when Boston merchants signed a non-importation agreement in which they pledged not to import or sell British goods, this caused a shortage in the colony of specific goods like textiles.

To help ease this shortage, the Daughters of Liberty organized spinning bees to spin yarn and wool into fabric, according to the book The American Revolution: A Concise History:

“Women took to their spinning wheels – what had been a chore for solitary women, spinning wool into yarn, weaving yarn into cloth, now became a public political act. Ninety-two ‘Daughters of Liberty’ brought their wheels to the meeting house in Newport, spending the day spinning together until they produced 170 skeins of yarn. Making and wearing homespun cloth became political acts of resistance.”

When the colonists also decided to boycott British goods, particularly British tea, women joined in on the boycott. Since women were the ones who purchased consumer goods for their households, and some of them also ran small shops themselves, their actions had a major impact on British merchants, according to the book Revolutionary Mothers:

“But when the call went out for a boycott of British goods, women became crucial participants in the first organized opposition to British policy. Thus, the first political act of American women was to say ‘No.’ In cities and small towns, women said no to merchants who continued to offer British goods and no to the consumption of those goods, despite their convenience or appeal. Their ‘no’s had an immediate and powerful effect, for women had become major consumers and purchasers by the mid-eighteenth century. And in American cities, widows, wives of sea captains and sailors, and unmarried women who ran their own shops had to make the decision to say no to selling British goods. In New York City a group of brides-to-be said no to their fiances, putting a public notice in the local newspaper that they would not marry men who applied for a stamped marriage license. Parliament could ignore the assemblies petitions. It could turn a deaf ear to soaring oratory and flights of rhetoric. But Parliament could not withstand the pressures placed on it by English merchants and manufacturers who saw their sales plummet and their warehouses overflow because of the boycott. In March 1766, the Stamp Act was repealed.”

In addition to boycotting the purchase of tea, women also signed agreements pledging that they would also not drink any tea offered to them. In Boston on January 31, 1770 the Boston Evening Post published the following agreement, reporting that over 300 Boston women had signed it:

“At a time when our invaluable rights and privileges are attacked in an unconstitutional and most alarming manner, and as we find we are reproached for not being so ready as could be desired, to lend our assistance, we think it our duty perfectly to concur with the true Friends of Liberty, in all the measures they have taken to save this abused country from ruin and slavery And particularly, we join with the very respectable body of merchants, and other inhabitants of this town, who met at Faneuil Hall the 23d of this instant, in their resolutions, totally abstain from the use of tea: And as the greatest part of the revenue arising by virtue of the late acts, is produced from the duty paid upon tea, which revenue is wholly expanded to support the American Board of Commissioners, we the subscribers do strictly engage, that we will totally abstain from the use of that article (sickness expected) not only in our respective families but that we will absolutely refuse it, if it should be offered to us upon any occasion whatsoever. This agreement we cheerfully come into, as we believe the very distressed situation of our country requires it, and we do hereby oblige ourselves religiously to observe it, till the late Revenue Acts are repealed.”

This same statement was also published on February 12 in the Boston Evening Post and similar statements were published on February 15 in the Boston Weekly News-letter and the Massachusetts Gazette.

To get around purchasing and drinking British tea, women found alternatives by making herbal teas from various plants like raspberry, mint and basil, which they referred to as Liberty Tea.

The Daughters of Liberty weren’t always so well-behaved though and sometimes took matters into their own hands when they deemed it necessary.

In 1777, these women even had their own version of the Boston Tea Party, later dubbed the “Coffee Party,” during which they confronted and assaulted a local merchant who was hoarding coffee in his warehouse. Abigail Adams described the incident in a letter, dated July 31, 1777, to her husband John Adams:

“You must know that there is a great scarcity of sugar and c offee , articles which the female part of the state are very loathe to give up, especially whilst they consider the scarcity occasioned by the merchants having secreted a large quantity. There has been much rout and noise in the town for several weeks. Some stores had been opened by a number of people and the c offee and sugar carried into the market and dealt out by pounds. It was rumoured that an eminent, wealthy, stingy merchant (who is a b achelor ) had a hogshead of c offee in his store which he refused to sell to the committee under 6 shillings per pound. A number of females some say a hundred, some say more assembled with a cart and trucks, marched down to the w arehouse and demanded the keys, which he refused to deliver, upon which one of them seized him by his neck and tossed him into the cart. Upon his finding no quarter he delivered the keys, when they tipped up the cart and discharged him, then opened the warehouse, hoisted out the c offee themselves, put it into the trucks and drove off. It was reported that he had a spanking among them, but this I believe was not true. A large concourse of men stood amazed silent spectators of the whole transaction.”


Bradford was born to William and Alice Bradford in Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. [2] :6 His family were farmers. [2] :17 The Bradford family owned a large farm and were considered rich. [2] :4

Bradford's father died was he was one year old. When he was four years old he was sent to live with his grandfather. Two years later, his grandfather died and he returned to live with his mother and stepfather. A year later, in 1597, his mother died. Bradford became an orphan at age 7. He was sent to live with two uncles. [2] :6

His uncles wanted Bradford to help on the farm but Bradford was ill and was not able to work. Bradford started to read many books. One of the books was the Bible. This may be where he started learning of a religion that was different from the church of England. [2] :7

When Bradford was 12 years old he went with a friend to hear the pastor Richard Clyfton. Clyfton was a minister who did not believe in the Church of England. Bradford believed in Clyfton’s words. His uncles told him not to go to that church but he went anyway. [2] :8

During one meeting he became friends with William Brewster. Brewster did not live far away and Bradford borrowed books from him about the new church. [2] :9

King James I of England started to punish the people who did not follow the Church of England. They were called Separatists. [2] :12 By 1607 many members of the Separatists were arrested. [2] :17 Brewster was made to pay a fine for going to the church. Some members were put into prison and others were watched night and day. [2] :17 The people also learned that other Separatists in London had been put into prison and left to starve to death. [3] :12

The Separatists decided to leave England for the Dutch Republic (where religious freedom was permitted). William Bradford went with them. It was illegal to leave England. The group was betrayed by an English sea captain who brought them to the English authorities. [2] :21 Most of the congregation, and Bradford, were put into prison. [3] :27 By the summer of 1608, the Separatists, and William Bradford, escaped to Leiden, Netherlands. Bradford was 18.

In the Dutch Republic Edit

William Bradford moved to Amsterdam in August 1608. He lived with the Brewsters in Stink Alley. [2] :35 The Separatists had spent most of their money leaving England and were poor. After nine months, the congregation moved to the smaller city of Leiden. [2] :33

When Bradford turned 21 he received some money. Bradford purchased his own house. He built a workshop and worked as a weaver. He was liked. [4] :17

In 1613, Bradford married Dorothy May, the daughter of a rich English couple living in Amsterdam. [2] :37 In 1617, the Bradfords had their first child, John Bradford. [3] :38

By 1617, the Separatists decided to travel to Virginia Colony in North America. [2] :40 The Separatists could practice their religion in the Dutch Republic, they wanted their children to keep their English customs and language. [4] :19 The colonists made a business arrangement with the Merchant Adventurers. These were a group of men who were willing to pay for the Pilgrims to go to the New World with the promise that the pilgrims would pay them back with furs and other goods they got from the colony. By July 1620, Robert Cushman and John Carver had made the plans and fifty Separatists left Delftshaven on the ship Speedwell. [4] :23

Many families were split as some Separatists stayed behind in the Netherlands, planning to make the voyage to the New World after the colony had been established. William and Dorothy Bradford left their three-year-old son John with Dorothy's parents in Amsterdam, possibly because he was too frail to make the voyage. [4] :23

Departure Edit

The Speedwell planned to meet with the Mayflower and both ships would travel to Virginia Colony. The Speedwell proved unsafe and the passengers were put on the Mayflower. This made the ship very crowded. Not all the passengers were Separatists. There were about 50 colonists who went because they had certain skills. These skills would prove useful on the Mayflower and at the colony. [4] :25 Bradford said they hugged each other and cried and said goodbye to family and friends for the last time. They knew they were pilgrims and lifted their eyes to heaven, their dearest country and this comforted them. [2] :51

The Mayflower left Plymouth, England on 16 September 1620. There were 102 passengers and 30–40 crew. On 19 November 1620, the Mayflower spotted land. The Mayflower was supposed to land in Virginia Colony, but the ship was too damaged and they were forced to land at Cape Cod now called Provincetown Harbor. [5] :20, 411-413

They landed on November 21. They wrote the Mayflower Compact, which made rules on how they would live and treat each other. Bradford signed the Mayflower Compact. [5] :413 [6]

Anchored and first explorations at Plymouth Colony Edit

Up to this time, Bradford, aged 30, had never been a leader in the colony. When the Mayflower anchored in the Harbor, the men went out to explore the land for a place where they could live. Bradford volunteered to be a member of the exploration parties. [2] :80 In November and December, these parties went out three times on foot and by boat.

One of the earliest exploration missions included William Bradford, John Carver, Myles Standish, Edward Winslow, John Howland, Richard Warren, Stephen Hopkins and Edward Doty. Of this group Hopkins was the most experienced, having seen Indians during his time at Jamestown. According to Bradford, they set off in below freezing weather, many of the men already being ill, "and when the set sail the salt spray froze on their coats, as if they had been glazed". During their trip they saw Indians who looked like they were cutting up a large whale. When the Indians saw the men they ran away. The men camped and protected themselves from the cold and the Indians. [4] :70

They located a place that would be Plymouth Colony in December. During the first expedition on foot, Bradford was caught up in a deer trap made by Native Americans and brought upside down. [2] :69 During the third exploration, on 6 December 1620, Bradford and the other men found Plymouth Bay. A winter storm nearly sank their boat as they came near the bay. The explorers were very cold and started to get sick. The waves were high but they landed on Clark's Island. [4] :70-73

During this time, they searched areas all around the bay and found a place to live and build their homes. The location had a large hill. This hill is now called Burial Hill. It was a good place to build a fort for safety against any possible enemies. There were many brooks providing water. They would later find out that the site had been the location of a Native American village known as Patuxet and that is why a large area had already been cleared for planting of food. The Patuxet tribe of Indians, between 1616 and 1619, had all died from bad sickness. [4] :79 Bradford later wrote that bones of the dead were easy to find in many places. [4] :80

Great sickness Edit

The Mayflower arrived in Plymouth Bay on 20 December 1620. The settlers began building the colony's first house on 25 December. [3] :114

On January 11, 1621, as Bradford was helping to build houses when he was got a great pain in his hipbone and fell. Bradford was taken to the "common house" (the only house that was finished) and they thought he would die that night, but he did not. [4] :85

Bradford got well but many of the pilgrims were not so fortunate. During the months of February and March 1621 sometimes two or three people died every day. By the end of the winter, half of the 100 settlers had died. [2] :88 They buried their dead in secret so the Native Americans would not see how many were dying. They buried them in Cole's Hill and tried to also hide the graves from the animals. [4] :90

There were only a small number of men who were healthy. Everyone, including the children had to work and care for the sick. One of these was Captain Myles Standish. He was a soldier who had been hired by the settlers to protect the people of the colony. Standish cared for Bradford during his illness. They became good friends. [7] :17 Bradford had no military experience and when he became governor he would come to trust Captain Standish's advice on military matters. [4] :114

William was chosen by the people to be Governor of Plymouth Colony. He kept journals (a written record) which are very important even today because they are the only history of how the Mayflower passengers and their families lived in Plymouth Colony. He died before he could finish the second book. [1]

Early service as governor Edit

On March 16, the settlers had their first meeting with the Native Americans who lived in the region. Samoset, an Indian walked into the village of Plymouth and greeted them in English. Samoset had learned some English from the traders who had visited the area he was from. This soon led to a visit by Massasoit, the leader of the Pokanoket tribe. At that meeting, Massassoit made a treaty with Governor John Carver. The treaty said that they would be friends and protect each other against unfriendly Indians. [4] :99

Bradford wrote down what was said. He would soon become governor and the treaty that was very important was the promise to help each other. [3] :125 This agreement was not liked by Massasoit's enemies in other tribes. [4] :114

In April 1621, Governor Carver became sick while working in the fields on a hot day. He died a few days later. The settlers of Plymouth then chose Bradford as the new governor. Bradford would remain governor most of his life. [2] :97

The elected leadership of Plymouth Colony was at first a governor and an assistant governor. The assistant governor for the first three years of the colony's history was Isaac Allerton. In 1624, it was changed to five assistants. This was called the "governor's council". These men gave advice to the governor and had a vote on important matters. They helped Bradford in managing the Colony. [3] :114 Assistants during the early years of the colony included Thomas Prence, Stephen Hopkins, John Alden, and John Howland. [5] :145, 151, 156, 281, 311

William Bradford married Dorothy in Amsterdam, Holland on December 10, 1613. They had one son. Dorothy fell from the deck of the Mayflower into the water and drowned a short time after the ship landed. Her husband was on an exploring mission. [8] John was born in Leiden, Holland and died in 1620.

His second wife was Alice Southwarth in Plymouth. They had three children. She died in Plymouth in March 1670 and was buried on Burial Hill in Plymouth near her husband. [9] [10]

Bradford wrote Of Plymouth Plantation. It was a history about Plymouth colony. [11] :152 It is often called a journal. It was a collection of what he saw and what he thought was important. This was written in two books. The first book was written in 1630 but the second was never finished. During the years 1646 and 1650, he wrote about the colony's history up to 1646. [12] :349

In Of Plymouth Plantation, Bradford saw what was happening to be like what happened in the Bible. As Philip Gould writes, "Bradford hoped to show the workings of God to future generations." [12] :349 The book was not published until 1656, the year before his death, and it was well liked. Bradford has been called the father of American history. [11] :151 Many American authors have put what Bradford said in their books. Thomas Prence did so in his book named A Chronological History of New-England in the Form of Annals. Today it is considered very important and studied in American schools and colleges. Bradford's journal was included in another work entitled Mourt's Relation. This was written in part by Edward Winslow, and made into a book in England in 1622.