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Transversal chronologies on particular themes: crusades, formation of empires, religions ...
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Although essentially European, the First World War (1914-1918) was the first conflict to take place on an international and "industrial" scale. Triggered on July 28, 1914 under the pretext of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, its causes are as much political as economic. Designed to be brief, it will ultimately last more than four years, killing 18 million (civilians and soldiers). At its conclusion the November 11, 1918, the War of 14-18 will leave the European continent permanently weakened and will sow the seeds of the following world conflict.
The crusades were military expeditions organized by Western Christians to liberate the Holy Land and the tomb of christ in Jerusalem, then under Muslim rule. Sometimes diverted from their initial objective, these crusades will last more than two centuries. Great feudal lords and European monarchs, such as Richard the Lionheart, Frédéric Barberousse or Philippe Auguste, will be illustrated there with more or less success. On the military level, the great epic of the crusades will end in failure. By attacking the Muslim world, until then tolerant of Christians, the Crusades would revive the idea of holy war and the spirit of revenge, which would later be exploited by the Ottomans.
LHundred Years War is a dynastic conflict that opposed the kings of France and England for more than a century at the end of the Middle Ages. Although its origins date back to the 12th century with the marriage of Henri Plantagenêt and Eleanor of Aquitaine, it is the death of Charles IV without a male heir that provokes hostilities. Discarded from the succession to the throne of France, the King of England Edward III started a war in 1337 which would continue until 1453, in an alternation of armed conflicts and periods of peace. The Hundred Years War is famous not only for its duration, but also because it marked an important stage in the construction of the national identities of the two countries. In addition, it was made up of famous battles, fought by historical figures who have become for some mythical, such as Joan of Arc.
The Algerian War, long called "the events of Algeria", traditionally begins on November 1, 1954, to end with the Evian agreements, on March 18, 1962. This violent conflict which opposed France and the Algerian nationalists for eight years resulted in Algerian independence and the departure of almost all of the Algerian “black feet”. To have a more precise vision of this complex and still painful conflict in the history of France, we must broaden the chronological framework, and try to go back a little to the origins.