Lutetia Timeline

Lutetia Timeline

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  • c. 400 BCE - c. 300 BCE

  • 53 BCE

    Julius Caesar holds council of Gallic tribes in Lutetia.

  • c. 300 CE - c. 400 CE

    Christianization of Lutetia.

  • 360 CE

    Lutetia is renamed to Paris.

  • 360 CE

    Julian the Apostate is proclaimed emperor in Lutetia / Paris.

  • 451 CE

    Genovefa (Saint Geneviève) convinces the people of Paris to defend themelves against Attila the Hun.

Paris History Facts and Timeline

Founded in the 3rd century BC, Paris started out as a fishing village, inhabited by a Celtic tribe known as the Parisii. It's widely thought that the first settlement was on the site now known as L'Ile de la Cité.

Julius Caesar's legions of Roman soldiers arrived in 52 BC. The Roman settlement, which became known as Lutetia, grew up around the hilly area of the Left Bank of the Seine. By the 5th century, however, Roman rule in the city had finally collapsed. In 508, the Frankish King Clovis I named the city - now known as Paris - as his capital. Although the title of capital city was lost to Aachen for a time, it returned in 987, with the coronation of Hugh Capet as King of France. As a royal capital, Paris also flourished as a religious and cultural centre.

A City of Churches

From the 12th century, Paris rapidly expanded, with recognizable districts emerging, including the Ile de France and the Left and Right Banks. The medieval period also saw the arrival of some of the city's great Gothic churches. In 1144, work on the Basilique Saint Denis was completed and 20 years later, work on Notre Dame Cathedral began.

From Renaissance to Revolution

The 14th and 15th centuries were troubled times in the history of Paris, with the city beset by outbreaks of plague, and civil and religious violence. Then, in 1594, Henry IV came here as the newly crowned King of France. His arrival sparked off a period of renaissance for the city. A number of large public works led to the transformation of the city into a place where the arts and sciences could flourish. By the mid-18th century, Paris was home to over half a million people and a brand new palace had been built at Versailles. The city was widely regarded as the centre of Western intellectualism and culture.

On 14th July,1789, all this was brought to and end with the outbreak of revolution in Paris. The revolution, and the 'reign of terror' that followed, led to the devastation of the city, with palaces, homes and churches destroyed in great numbers.

Modern Paris

By the mid-19th century, the city had become a muddle of overcrowded and unsanitary medieval streets. Emperor Napoleon III took on the task of renovating the city, choosing Baron Haussmann as his architect. Haussman succeeded in transforming Paris into a city of stone apartment buildings, and added tree-lined boulevards and a more modern sewer system.

The Belle Époque was the real golden age, with the construction of the Eiffel Tower and the city's Metro system. During the early 20th century, the city also became a centre for experimental art, including that of Dali and Picasso, and literature.

In 1940, Paris was invaded by Nazi Germany, marking the start of four years of occupation. The city was finally liberated by Allied Forces in 1944. Post-war Paris recovered quickly. The French capital has been at the centre of many political events since, including the 1968 student uprising and the riots that broke out in 2005.


The name Venetia et Histria was used for the region was in part because of the "early and unwavering" loyalty of the local Veneti people to the Roman state. [3] This name was also preferred to using the name of a more rebellious group like the Celtic Cenomani because of the Roman belief in a shared descent with the Veneti from the Trojans. [4]

Pliny the Elder was the only Roman writer to discuss the Augustan subdivision of Italy into regiones directly and did so in his Natural History. [5] The region's new borders did not cleave directly to pre-existing regional identities. Verona which had traditionally been seen as part of Transpadana as it was north of the Po was not incorporated into the region with that name, regio XI but was made part of regio X. [6]

Neratius Pansa, a Roman senator of the late first century AD, is believed, on the basis of epigraphic evidence, to have led a census here under the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 73-74. [7]

We now come to the tenth region of Italy, situated on the Adriatic Sea. In this district are Venetia, the river Silis, rising in the Tarvisanian mountains, the town of Altinum, the river Liquentia rising in the mountains of Opitergium, and a port with the same name, the colony of Concordia the rivers and harbours of Romatinum, the greater and lesser Tiliaventum, the Anaxum, into which the Varamus flows, the Alsa, and the Natiso with the Turrus, which flow past the colony of Aquileia at a distance of fifteen miles from the sea. This is the country of the Carni, and adjoining to it is that of the lapydes, the river Timavus, the fortress of Pucinum, famous for its wines, the Gulf of Tergeste, and the colony of that name, thirty-three miles from Aquileia.

In the late first century AD, Pliny identified 36 cities in the region, while Strabo identified 12 in the same area. The CIL has identified 16 separate settlements using epigraphic evidence, and other historians have argued that "the density of cities for the region is not high compared to the rest of Italy". [8]

While the capital of the region, Aquileia, was a major centre for commerce, transport, and public life in northeastern Italy, with an amphitheater that could hold more than 27,000 and a position at the centre of a wide network of roads, other cities like Concordia, Tergeste, and Altinum were also substantial regional hubs. [9]

The cratering history of asteroid (21) Lutetia

The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft passed by the main belt asteroid (21) Lutetia on 10th July 2010. With its ∼ 100 km size, Lutetia is one of the largest asteroids ever imaged by a spacecraft. During the flyby, the on-board OSIRIS imaging system acquired spectacular images of Lutetia's northern hemisphere revealing a complex surface scarred by numerous impact craters, reaching the maximum dimension of about 55 km.

In this paper, we assess the cratering history of the asteroid. For this purpose, we apply current models describing the formation and evolution of main belt asteroids, that provide the rate and velocity distributions of impactors. These models, coupled with appropriate crater scaling laws, allow us to interpret the observed crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) and constrain the cratering history. Thanks to this approach, we derive the crater retention age of several regions on Lutetia, namely the time lapsed since their formation or global surface reset. We also investigate the influence of various factors – like Lutetia's bulk structure and crater obliteration – on the observed crater SFDs and the estimated surface ages.

From our analysis, it emerges that Lutetia underwent a complex collisional evolution, involving major local resurfacing events till recent times. The difference in crater density between the youngest and oldest recognized units implies a difference in age of more than a factor of 10. The youngest unit (Beatica) has an estimated age of tens to hundreds of Myr, while the oldest one (Achaia) formed during a period when the bombardment of asteroids was more intense than the current one, presumably around 3.6 Gyr ago or older.


► Craters on Lutetia have been analyzed. ► We find a wide range of ages, from hundreds Ma to 3.6 Ga. ► Lutetia collisional evolution has been very active, till recent times.

The Valois

The Direct Capetian line died out in 1328, leaving no male heir. Edward III of England claimed the French throne by virtue of his descent (via his mother) from Philip IV of France.

This was rejected by the French barons, who supported the rival claim of Philippe of Valois (Philip VI of France). The Hundred Years’ War thus began, followed swiftly by the arrival of the Black Death.

Paris’ history in the 14th century was thus punctuated by outbreaks of plague, political violence, and popular uprisings. In January 1357, Étienne Marcel, the Provost of Paris, led a merchants’ revolt in a bid to curb the power of the monarchy and obtain privileges for the city and the Estates-General, which had met for the first time in Paris in 1347.

After initial concessions by the Crown, the city was retaken by royalist forces in 1358, and Marcel and his followers were killed.

Civil war broke out in France after the assassination of Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans by the Burgundian John the Fearless in 1407 (a plaque marks the spot on the rue des Francs-Bourgeois in the Marais quarter).

John the Fearless’agents fled the scene of the crime to the Tower of John the Fearless (now on rue Etienne Marcel) Struggles ensued between the Burgundian and Armagnac parties for control of the capital and the person of the king.

John the Fearless, whose power was initially in the ascendant, arranged for theologians of the University of Paris to present a defense of the murder of Louis of Orleans, which was presented as a tyrannicide due to the duke’s undue influence on Charles VI.

John the Fearless’ power in Paris came to an end in 1409 with the revolt of the Caboches, although he was to retake the city in 1417 until his assassination in 1419.

In the ensuing chaos, the English captured Paris in 1420. In 1422, Henry V of England died at the Chateau de Vincennes, just outside the city. Charles VII of France tried but failed to retake the city in 1429, despite the assistance of Joan of Arc (who was wounded in the attempt).

The following year, Henry VI of England was crowned King of France at Notre-Dame. French persistence paid off in 1437 when Charles finally managed to retake the city after several failed sieges.

With the recapture of the city, the Valois monarchs and French nobility sought to impose their authority on the city through the construction of various grandiose ecclesiastical and secular monuments, including churches and mansions.

These developments notwithstanding, the later Valois dynasty largely abandoned Paris as a place of residence, preferring various Renaissance châteaux in the Loire Valley and Parisian countryside instead. Over the following century, the city’s population more than tripled.

Francois, I had probably the greatest impact of any Valois monarch, transforming the Louvre and establishing a glittering court, including such notables as Leonardo da Vinci and Benvenuto Cellini.

On 23 December 1588, Henri III had the duke of Guise, and the cardinal of Lorraine assassinated at the Estates of Blois, which further enraged his opponents in Paris.

At this time, the printing presses of Paris produced huge numbers of libels against the king and his policies.

1 August 1589, Henri III was assassinated by a fanatical Dominican monk, Jacques Clement, bringing the Valois line to an end.

However, Paris, along with the other towns of the Holy Union (or Catholic League) held out against Henri IV until 1594. After his victory over the Holy Union at the battle of Ivry on 14 March 1590, Henri IV proceeded to lay siege to Paris, greatly to the distress of the population. Immense poverty was experienced, prices rose dramatically as wages stagnated, huge numbers of religious processions were led by the clergy and confraternities to pray for Paris’ salvation.

These devotions might be said to form an early stage of the Catholic Reformation in Paris. The siege was eventually lifted on the 30 August 1590, but economic conditions remained difficult in Paris throughout the 1590s. This situation led to popular protests such as that of the ‘Pain ou Paix’ where protesters demanded either cheap bread or that the civic government made peace with Henri IV.

Gradually, the power of the Seize was diminished as the nobility of the Holy Union, principally the duke of Mayenne and the duke of Nemours, governor of Paris, took power in the city.

They called the Estates-General in 1593 to attempt to find an alternative solution to the succession and prevent Henri IV from becoming king (he had not yet proceeded to his coronation).

However, the attempt stumbled over the lack of a viable heir, despite the attempts by Spanish ambassadors to have the Infanta crowned (arguing that the constitutional law that the monarch must be Catholic was more important than that declaring the monarch must be male).

The year 1593 saw the decline of the League across France, and in Paris, two important literary works were published – the Satire Menippee and the Dialogue d’Entre le Maheustre et le Manant (the courtier and the laborer) – which satirized and analyzed the events of the time.

On 14 March 1594, Henri IV entered Paris with the complicity of the civic government, and he was soon crowned King of France.

Unlike the later Valois kings, Henri IV made Paris his primary residence, and he undertook a number of major public works in the city, including extensions to the Louvre (whose projected expansion under Henri II into a square courtyard, the “cour carrée”, was far from completed) and construction of the Pont Neuf, Place des Vosges, Place Dauphine, and Saint-Louis Hospital. Henri IV faced constant danger from religious fanatics on both sides, particularly after granting religious tolerance to Protestants under the Edict of Nantes.

After surviving at least 23 assassination attempts, he fell victim to a Catholic fanatic on 14 May 1610.

Louis XIII became king at the age of only eight, with political power exercised by his mother, Marie de Médicis, in the role of regent. Although Louis took over when he reached the age of majority, at 15, the real power was exercised by the brilliant but ruthless Cardinal Richelieu, who greatly expanded royal power.

Louis’ reign saw major changes to the face of Paris his mother commissioned the Palais du Luxembourg, while Cardinal Richelieu built the Palais Royal and rebuilt the Sorbonne. He also commissioned a number of major Baroque churches as a statement of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Louis died in 1643, leaving the throne to his five-year-old heir Louis XIV. The new king and his family were forced to flee the city in 1648 by a rebellion, known as the Fronde.

The Fronde arose from two sources of discontent: bourgeois protested against royal authoritarianism and excessive taxes the high nobility revolted in order to regain the political power that they had lost under Richelieu. Rebel rule proved considerably worse, however, and the king returned to a hero’s welcome in 1653.

Royalist France achieved its greatest heights under Louis XIV, the “Sun King.” His minister of finance, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, undertook lavish building projects in Paris in an effort to make it a “new Rome” fit for the Sun King. The king himself, however, detested Paris, preferring instead to rule France from his vast chateau at Versailles.

The city had, by this time, grown far beyond its medieval boundaries, with some 500,000 inhabitants and 25,000 houses by the mid-17th century.

His great-grandson Louis XV became king at the age of only five, with Philip of Orleans serving as regent. The Court returned to Paris, with the new king installed in the Palais-Royal.

Philip quickly gained a reputation for corruption and debauchery. His involvement in the financial scandal of the South Sea Bubble in 1720 greatly discredited him, freeing Louis XV to move the court back to Versailles.

During the latter half of the 18th century, Paris became the intellectual and cultural capital of the Western world. It became a center of the Enlightenment, with its salons becoming the center of the new thinking of the “Age of Reason.”

This was positively encouraged by the state, with Louis’ mistress Madame de Pompadour supporting the city’s intellectuals and prompting the king to construct striking new monuments.

Under Louis XVI, Paris reached new heights of prestige as a center of the arts, sciences, and philosophy. It was in Paris that the Montgolfier brothers made their historic balloon ascents in 1783.

However, the French state was by now virtually bankrupt, its finances drained by the Seven Years’ War and the French intervention in the American War of Independence. A new wall was built around Paris between1784 and 1791, this time to create a customs barrier for taxation purposes. Not surprisingly, this was a very unpopular innovation.

The disastrous harvest of 1788 brought matters to a head, with widespread famine and hunger across France and food riots in Paris.

  • 9000-5000 BCE
    • First known settlements in Paris during Mesolithic era, located near rue Henri-Farman in the 15th arrondissement. [1]
    • The Parisii, a Celtic tribe, found a town, called Lucotecia, on the Île de la Cité. [2]
      addresses an assembly of leaders of the Gauls in Lucotecia, asking for their support. [3]
    • The Parisii are defeated by the Roman general Titus Labienus at the Battle of Lutetia. A Gallo-Roman garrison town, called Lutetia, is founded on the left bank of the Seine. [4]
    • The sailors of Lutetia erect the Pillar of the Boatmen in honor of the Roman god Jupiter.
    • Construction of the Forum of Lutetia
    • Construction of the baths, the amphitheater and the theater of Lutetia
    • Lutetia gradually becomes known as Civitas Parisiorum, the "City of the Parisii", then simply "Paris". [4]
    • Arrival of Christianity in Paris execution by Romans of Bishop Saint Denis on Montmartre, the "Mountain of Martyrs".
    • The settlement on the left bank is ravaged by Germanic tribes.
    • A rampart is built around the Île de la Cité.
    • The Roman commander Julian the Apostate resides in Paris during the winter, when not fighting the Germanic tribes.
    • Julian is proclaimed Roman Emperor by his soldiers.
    • The Emperor Valentinian I resides briefly in Paris.
      visits Paris, and according to tradition heals a leper at the north gate of the town. [5]
    • Paris is threatened by the Huns. Saint Genevieve persuades the Parisians not to abandon the city, and the Huns attack Tours instead.
    • The city is blockaded by Chilperic I, King of the Franks.
    • 486
        , King of the Franks, negotiates with Saint Genevieve the submission of Paris to his authority. [5]
      • Burial of Saint Genevieve atop the hill on the left bank which now bears her name. A basilica, the Basilique des Saints Apôtres, is built on the site and consecrated on 24 December 520. It later becomes the site of the Basilica of Saint-Genevieve, which after the French Revolution becomes the Panthéon.
        , the king of the Franks, makes Paris his capital. [6] (Some sources give the date 508 [5] )
      • Construction of the Saint-Étienne cathedral, predecessor to Notre-Dame de Paris, begins. [5]
      • Founding of the Basilica of Saint-Vincent, by Childebert I, the King of Paris. The Basilica becomes the burial place for the first French kings, beginning with Childebert. [7]
      • Saint Germain, the Bishop of Paris, is buried at the Abbey of Saint-Vincent, which thereafter is known as the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. [8]
      • King Chilperic I has the Roman amphitheater repaired, and theatrical events are performed there.
      • A fire destroys most of the buildings on the Île de la Cité.
      • King Dagobert I is buried in the abbey of Saint-Denis, which becomes the main necropolis for French kings.
      • The city stops minting gold coins and replaces them with silver coins.
      • Consecration of the new Basilica of Saint-Denis, attended by the Emperor Charlemagne
      • Mention is made in documents of what is the oldest known street in Paris, rue Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois (1st arrondissement).
        — The first attack on the city by the Vikings, who burn the city. King Charles the Bald gives them 7000 pounds of silver to go away.
      • 28 December – The Vikings return and burn the city again.
      • Vikings led by Björn Ironside almost destroy Paris, and burn all its churches, except those that pay a ransom: Saint-Étienne (now Notre-Dame cathedral), Saint-Denis and Saint-Germain-des-Prés.
      • The Vikings burn Paris and the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. The Abbey is pillaged again in 869.
      • King Charles the Bald orders the construction of two bridges, the Grand Pont and the Petit Pont, ostensibly to block the passage of the Vikings up the Seine.
      • 24 November – Gozlin, the Bishop of Paris, repairs the city wall and reinforces the bridges the city resists an attack by the Vikings.
      • 6 February – The Petit pont washes away, allowing the Vikings to lay siege to the city and pillage the surrounding region.
      • September – The Carolingian Emperor Charles the Fat pays the Vikings 700 pounds of silver to depart.
      • The Vikings attack Paris again in May 887 and June–July 888, but thanks to strengthened defenses the city is not captured.
      • October – Siege of Paris by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II. The Parisians block the supplies of the invaders from going up the Seine. An army led by Hugh Capet arrives and the siege is finally lifted on 30 December.
        , elected King of the Franks in 987, resides in Paris for a time, and returns again in 989, 992 and 994–995. [9]
      • Hugh Capet dies in Paris and is buried in the Basilica of Saint-Denis.

      11th century Edit

      • c. 1014
        • Construction of a new nave of the church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, begun by Abbot Morard.
        • Students begin arriving in Paris to study at the episcopal school of Notre-Dame. [9]
        • Reconstruction of the Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory. The church is consecrated in 1067.

        12th century Edit

        • 1100s The Holy Innocents' Cemetery in Paris is established, becoming home to mass graves.
        • 1100
          • The celebrated scholar Abélard begins teaching at the school of Notre-Dame.
          • King Louis VI gives special privileges to the Basilica of Saint-Denis, raising the status of Paris over Orléans as the capital of the Capetian Kings. [10]
          • Construction begins of a new Grand Pont, later called the pont au Change, completed in 1116. The Petit Pont is also rebuilt.
          • The scholar Abélard begins what becomes a legendary romance with the nun Héloïse in about 1116. In 1117 is punished for his relationship by castration. He retires to the monastery of Saint-Denis and then to Saint-Ayoul, but later returns to Paris and to Héloïse.
          • Teachers and students begin taking up residence on the left bank, around the montagne Sainte-Geneviève, since the cloister of Notre-Dame is not large enough to house them all. This is the beginning of the Latin Quarter and the future University of Paris. [10]
          • 13 October – Death of Philippe, the eldest son of king Louis VI, who died the day after being thrown from his horse, which panicked when he encountered a pig. As a result, it is forbidden to let pigs go freely on the city streets. [10]
          • The Bishop of Paris punishes the teachers and students on the montagne Sainte-Geneviève for the growing number of conflicts between the students and the townspeople.
          • Abbot Suger begins the reconstruction of the Basilica of Saint-Denis in the new Gothic style. The new Basilica is consecrated on 11 June 1144, and becomes a model for cathedrals and churches across Europe.
          • King Louis VI grants to the merchants of Paris the right to seize the property of their debtors and to form associations, the first steps toward a municipality. [11]
          • A new market is installed at Champeaux, which gradually replaces the market on the place de Grève and becomes the central market of Les Halles.
          • Establishment of the Templars in the old Temple, near the church of Saint-Gervais.
          • First mention in documents of the corporation of butchers in the city.
          • The Templars occupy their new building in Paris, in the presence of king Louis VII and of the Pope. When he departs for the Crusades, the king leaves the royal treasury in the care of the Templars, and the regency with Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis.
          • 21 April – Pope Eugene III consecrates the new church of Saint-Pierre-de-Montmartre.
          • 21 April – Consecration of the choir of the abbey church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés by Pope Alexander III.
          • Beginning of the reconstruction of the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris in the Gothic style. [12]
          • King Louis VII confirms the privileges of the corporation of water merchants, whose water-bearers carry water from the Seine to residences.
          • First mention in documents of the Fair of Saint-Germain. Half of the profits were reserved for King Louis VII.
          • Founding of the collège des Dix-Huit by Messire Josse de Londres, an Englishman. This was the first college in Paris, established for eighteen poor clerical students in a room within the Hôtel-Dieu. [13][14]
          • 5 February – King Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste) arrests the leaders of the Jewish community, and requires them to pay 15,000 silver marcs.
          • Philip Augustus expels the Jews from the Île de la Cité, and their synagogue is turned into a church. They are allowed to return in 1198, in return for paying heavy taxes. [15]
          • 19 May – Consecration of the altar of the cathedral of Notre Dame. [16]
          • Two market buildings are constructed at the small hamlet Les Champeaux meaning ("little fields"), the beginning of Les Halles.
          • Philip Augustus orders the paving of the major streets of the city with cobblestones (pavés).
          • Philip Augustus departs for the Third Crusade. Six Paris merchants are assigned to act as a council of the regency in his absence, each with a key to the treasury. Before departing, he orders the construction of the first wall around the entire city. The wall on the right bank is finished in 1208, and on the left bank between 1209 and 1213. He also begins construction of the fortress of the Louvre on the right bank. [17]
          • March – A flood destroys all the bridges over the Seine the King is forced to abandon his palace on the Île de la Citè and move to the hill of Sainte-Geneviève.

          13th century Edit

          • 1200
            • Battles between the sergeants of the Provost of Paris and students, which cause the death of five students. When the Paris students threaten to leave the city, Philip Augustus grants the students the right to be judged exclusively by the tribunal of the Bishop of Paris. This marks the beginning of the legal status of the University of Paris.
            • Completion of the Louvre fortress.
            • The Abbot of Saint-Geneviève purchases the clos Garlande on the Left Bank and builds houses in the neighborhood for students.
              limits the number of chairs of theology at the University to eight, to maintain control over the University.
            • The second college of the University is founded the Collège des pauvres écoliers de Saint-Honoré, for thirteen students without funds.
            • Pope Innocent III permits the teachers of the University to form a corporation, and in 1212 gives them a degree of independence from the authority of the Bishop of Paris. [18]
            • Ten Amauriciens, students of the scholar Amaury de Chartres, are condemned for heresy and burned at the stake outside of Paris, beyond the rampart gate porte des Champeaux, for making too much of the works of Aristotle. [18]
            • 16 November – Pope Innocent III prohibits the teaching of Roman, or civil law, at the University only canon law can be taught.
            • December – Conflicts between the Bishop of Paris and the University, which is supported by the new Pope, Honorius III.
            • 26 February – More street battles between students and the sergeants of the Provost of Paris. On April 15, the University temporarily leaves the city in protest, and some of the teachers depart for Oxford and Cambridge.
            • Paris scriptoria producing illuminated manuscripts flourish. The style of the Paris school is copied throughout France.
            • Draining of the marshes Le Marais begins.
            • For the first time, the ringing of the bells of the churches of Paris is regulated by clocks, so that all sound at about the same time. The time of day becomes an important feature in regulating the work and life of the city. [21]
            • The University of Paris is granted financial and judicial autonomy, and its own seal.
            • Founding of the College and Priory of Saint-Bernard, to house the Cistercian monks who have come to Paris to study theology.
              begins to teach at the University of Paris.
        • 26 April – Consecration of Sainte-Chapelle, built to house sacred relics from the Holy Land purchased by Louis IX (Saint Louis).
          • Founding of the Parlement of Paris (Curia Regis), to advise the King on legal matters and later to make judicial decisions.
          • Saint Thomas Aquinas begins to teach at the University of Paris, and remains until 1259. He returns between 1269 and 1272. [21]
          • June – Alphonse de Poitiers, brother of Louis IX, moves into his recently built townhouse (hôtel d'Hosteriche) near the Louvre. Following his example, other princes of the blood and members of the high aristocracy built princely residences in the same neighborhood. [21]
          • 10 June – First stone laid for the Abbaye royale de Longchamp, the royal convent of Longchamp, by Isabelle, Louis IX's sister.
          • 1 September – Opening of a new college of the university founded by Robert de Sorbon, advisor to the King, later known as the College of Sorbonne. [21]
          • Geoffroy de Courfraud is named the first chevalier de guet, or knight of the watchmen, responsible for security in the city.
          • Corporation of surgeons and corporation of barbers are organized.
            is named the first prévôt, or provost of Paris, the royal administrator of the city.
      • A new college is organized for students of the Abbey of Cluny.
        • Évroïn de Valenciennes becomes the first recorded provost of the merchants of Paris, a position which gradually becomes equivalent to that of mayor.
        • December – A major flood washes away two arches of the Grand Pont and one arch of the Petit Pont, and encircles the city on the right bank.
        • May – King Philip IV, ("Philip the Fair"), expels the money-lenders, or Lombards, from the city.
        • First written mention of the Paris concierges, who serve as doormen and guardians at palaces, convents and private mansions. [22]
        • The fortifications of the Palais de la Cité are demolished and the palace is enlarged, so that by 1314 it houses all of the royal administration.
        • The Conseil de Ville, or city council, is organized, made up of twenty-four leading citizens.
        • First mention of the construction of a clock tower in Paris (installation of clock will take place in 1370).

        14th century Edit

        • 1302
          • First meeting of the Estates General convened by King Philippe IV, to win support for his conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. [23]
          • Money-changers establish themselves on the Grand Pont, which becomes known as the Pont-au-Change.
          • 21 July – Expulsion of the Jews from Paris, and confiscation of their property. They are allowed to return in July 1315, but recover only a third of their property. [24]
          • 30 December – Riots following an increase in rents. King Philip IV is besieged in the tower of the temple. Twenty-one rioters are later hanged.
          • 13 October – Philip IV orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, and the seizure of their property.
          • Construction begins of a clock tower in the Palace on the Île de la Cité, finished in 1314.
          • The leaders of the Knights Templar, including Jacques de Molay, are burned at the stake on the Île aux Juifs, also called Île des Templiers, an island west of the Île de la Cité.
          • 14 September – Organization of the first recorded company of musicians, the Confrérie de Saint-Julien-des-Ménétriers.
          • The breakup of ice on the Seine destroys all the wooden bridges. The Île de la Cité is supplied with food by boat for a period of five weeks.
          • Construction begins of the Château de Vincennes, completed about 1410.
          • Founding of the first two recorded theater companies in Paris the Confrérie de la Passion, which originally performed religious dramas, and the Gallants sans souci, which performed farces. [25]
          • The Black death, or bubonic plague, ravages Paris. In May 1349, it becomes so severe that the Royal Council flees the city.
          • Building of the first open sewer in Paris. It begins at place Baudoyer, runs east along rue Saint-Antoine, and empties into the moat of the Bastille.
            is chosen as the Provost of the merchants of Paris.
          • Decision to build a new wall around the city, called the wall of Charles V, finished in 1383.
          • 19 September – The capture of King Jean II (Jean le Bon) by the English at the Battle of Poitiers throws France into political chaos and opens the Hundred Years War.
          • 7 July – Étienne Marcel buys a house on the place de Grève to serve as the first city hall.
          • 22 February Armed supporters of Étienne Marcel invade the Palace. In the presence of the Dauphin, Charles, the heir to the throne, future Charles V, they kill the Marshals of Champagne and Normandy, and take the Dauphin under their protection. On 24 February, four Paris merchants, including Étienne Marcel, become members of the new royal council.
          • 4 May – King Charles II of Navarre, accompanied by an army of English mercenaries, enters Paris. Étienne Marcel takes his side, and the Dauphin flees the city.
          • 22 July – Battles within and around Paris between supporters of the Dauphin and of Charles of Navarre. Charles of Navarre flees the city.
          • 31 July – Étienne Marcel attempts to open the gates of the city to the mercenaries of Charles of Navarre, and is killed at the bastion of Saint-Antoine by supporters of the Dauphin.
          • 2 August – The Dauphin returns to Paris. The leading supporters of Étienne Marcel and Charles of Navarre are executed, but others are given a general amnesty. The Dauphin buys the Hôtel Saint-Pol in the Saint-Paul quarter, and lives there until his death.
          • The course of the Bièvre River at the moat of Saint-Bernard is diverted to empty into the Seine at La Tournelle. The portion within the city is covered and used as a sewer.
          • A royal decree orders that all churches ring their bells at the hour and quarter-hour, as determined by the clock installed in the square courtyard of the Palais de la Cité.
          • 22 April – Placement of the first stone of the Bastille.
          • Construction of the first Pont Saint-Michel, known then as the Pont-neuf finished in 1387.
          • 29 October – First trial for sorcery, Jeanne de Brigue is convicted by the Parlement of Paris and burned at the stake on 19 August 1391.
          • August – Founding of the first corporation of artists, the Confrérie des peintres and tailleurs d'images. [26]
          • The publication of first cookbook and how to run a household, titled Le Ménagier de Paris. [26][27]
          • 17 September – A Royal edict expels Jews from France. The Jewish community loses its legal identity for the next four centuries. [26]
          • First measures to relax church control over the university. Students and professors of the school of medicine are permitted to marry.
          • 1404
            • 18 July – Louis, Duke of Orléans, highly unpopular with the Parisians, flees Paris, taking with him the infant Dauphin of France, the future Charles VII of France.
            • 19 July – Jean Sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy, makes a triumphant return into Paris.
            • First officially sanctioned dissection of a cadaver at the faculty of medicine of the university. [28]
            • 23 November – Murder of the Duke of Orléans on the rue Vielle-du-Temple, by assassins sent by Jean Sans Peur.
            • 31 January – The breakup of the ice on the Seine destroys the Petit pont and the Grand pont.
            • 28 June – Jean Sans Peur enters Paris at the head of a small army. He is welcomed by the Parisians, and departs in July.
            • Jean Sans Peur establishes himself in Paris, but the city is soon divided into two rival factions: the Burgundians, supporters of Jean sans Peur and the Armagnacs, supporters of Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria and Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac.
            • July–August – After a series of riots and disturbances, the Armagnacs gain control of Paris from the Burgundians Jean Sans Peur flees the city.
            • 29 May – The Armagnacs have become increasingly unpopular in Paris. During the night of May 29, the merchants of Paris open the porte Saint-Germain-des Prés to the Burgundian soldiers. Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, and the other leaders of the Armagnacs are arrested in their beds and massacred on 12 June.
            • 14 July – Jean Sans Peur and Queen Isabeau enter Paris by the Porte Saint-Antoine. The fifteen-year-old Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France, escapes the city. [29]
            • 10 September – Jean Sans Peur goes to meet the Dauphin at the bridge of Montereau, and is killed by the Dauphin's supporters (the Armagnacs).
            • 30 May – Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon), the new Duke of Burgundy and ruler of Paris, forms an alliance with the English and persuades King Charles the Mad (Charles le Fol) and leaders of university and the merchants of Paris take an oath to accept Henry V of England as the heir to the French throne.
            • 1 December – King Henry V of England arrives in Paris and takes residence at the Louvre, while King Charles VI the Mad is moved to the hôtel Saint-Pol. [29]
            • 31 August – Death of Henry V of England, followed on 21 October by the death of Charles VI of France. Thereafter the kings of France spend very little time in Paris, until 1528, when François I returns there with the court. [30]
            • First record of the arrival of the Romani people, or gypsies, in Paris.
            • 8 September – Joan of Arc, fighting for King Charles VII (Charles le Victorieux), tries and fails to retake Paris. She is wounded outside the Porte Saint-Honoré.
            • May – Joan of Arc, captured by the Burgundians in 1429, is handed over to the English in Rouen and brought to trial for heresy. The case against her is prepared by the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. At Cauchon's request, the faculty of the University of Paris endorses the charge of heresy against her. She is convicted and burned at the stake.
            • 16 December. Henry VI of England, nine years old, comes to Paris for a month and is crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Notre Dame by his uncle, the Cardinal of Winchester.
            • March to 8 April – Floods submerge Le Marais from the porte Saint-Antoine to the porte Saint-Martin. [30]
            • 28 February – After a series of victories, the army of Charles VII surrounds Paris. Charles VII promises amnesty to the Parisians who supported the Burgundians and English.
            • 13 April – Uprising within the city against the English and Burgundians the soldiers of Charles VII enter the city through the porte Saint-Jacques.
            • 15 April – The English soldiers are allowed to depart by boat on the Seine for Rouen.
            • 12 November – Charles VII returns to Paris, but remains only three weeks. He moves his residence and the court to the Châteaux of the Loire Valley. [31]
            • Epidemics of bubonic plague and smallpox strike the city.
            • 26 March – The university has its independence limited, and is put under the authority of the Parlement of Paris.
            • Establishment of the tapestry workshop of the Gobelins family beside the Bièvre River in the faubourg Saint-Marcel. [31]
            • 26 July – Ordinance sets the procedure for the election of the Provost of the merchants and the échevins, or municipal magistrates. [31]
            • Performance in Paris of La Farce de Maistre Pierre Pathelin, the first notable French comedy.
            • 7 July – The Count of Charolais, Charles le Téméraire, and other nobles, forming the League of the Public Weal, rebel against King Louis XI (Louis le Prudent) and attack Paris, but are repelled.
            • Louis XI takes sanctuary in Paris and asks the support of the merchants, university and clergy, whose franchises he abolished in 1461. The siege of Paris by the league continues until 29 October, when a treaty is signed with Louis XI.
              of the first book to be printed in France, Letters by Gasparin de Bergame. [32]
            • Reconstruction of the hôtel de Sens (Hôtel des archevêques de Sens) by the Archbishop Tristan de Salazar.
            • Printing of the first Bible in Paris.
            • Establishment of royal postal service with couriers on horseback.
            • Construction begins of the Hôtel de Cluny for the Abbots of the Cluny Monastery, finished in 1510. It is now the museum of the Middle Ages.
            • The municipality of Paris refuses to loan King Charles VIII (Charles l'Affable) 100,000 écus for a military expedition to Italy, which it considers useless.
            • 15 March – Founding of the convent of the Minimes at Chaillot.
            • First recorded case of syphilis in Paris, brought from Italy by soldiers of Charles VIII. Foreigners in the city with the disease are expelled from the city on 6 March 1497.
            • A flood of the Seine reaches the place de Grève, place Maubert and the rue Saint-André-des-Arts.
            • October 25 – A flood of the Seine causes the collapse of the wooden pont Notre-Dame.
            • 1500
              • 6 July – Reconstruction begins of the Pont Notre-Dame in stone, replacing the wooden bridge which collapsed on 25 October 1499. The new bridge is finished in 1514. [23][33]
              • July – Ordinance of the Parlement de Paris for the lighting of Paris streets at nine in the evening Parisians are required to put a candle in a lantern in their window. The ordinance is not widely obeyed, and is repeated in 1524, 1526, 1551, and later. [34]
              • Publication of the first printed Book of Hours in Roman letters. The use of Gothic script gradually disappears.
              • 5 April – The direction of the Hôtel-Dieu hospital is transferred from the chanoines of Notre-Dame cathedral to eight laymen governors selected among the business leaders of Paris by the City Assembly,
              • 15 April – The College of Sorbonne formally condemns the teachings of Martin Luther.
              • First French translation of the New Testament of the Bible published. In 1525, alarmed by this unauthorized text, the theology faculty of the University of Paris forbids further translations of the Bible.
              • March – The city police force of 120 archers and sixty arbaletriers is reinforced with one hundred arquebusiers,
              • 8 August – The Augustine monk Jean Vallière is burned at the stake for proclaiming that Jesus Christ was born like other humans.
              • 15 March – Letters of patent issued to construct the quai du Louvre.
              • King François I begins construction of a large hunting lodge, the Château de Madrid, in the Bois de Boulogne.
              • 28 February – In order to turn the Louvre into a palatial residence, demolition of its great central tower begins.
              • 15 March – François I formally announces that he plans to make Paris his principal residence.
              • 19 August – Miles Regnault, secretary of the Bishop of Paris, who had converted to Lutheranism, is condemned and burned at the stake on the Place de Grève.
              • March – François I founds the Collège des lecteurs royaux, or Collège de France, to offer lectures in subjects not taught at the College of Sorbonne, including Hebrew, Ancient Greek, and mathematics.
              • December – New outbreak of bubonic plague. The Holy Innocents' Cemetery is completely filled, so a new cemetery for plague victims is created on the plain of Grenelle, facing the hill of Chaillot.
              • 19 August – First stone placed for the new Saint-Eustache church, not finished until 1637.
              • 22 December – The architect Domenico da Cortona presents his plan for the new Hôtel de Ville. The cornerstone is laid on 15 July 1533. [35]
              • April – The Ordinance of Fontainebleau orders the demolition of the gates on the right bank of the wall built by Philippe-Auguste.
              • 1 November – At the opening of the academic year, the rector of the university, Nicolas Cop, causes a scandal by giving a lecture inspired by Jean Calvin.
              • 15 August – Ignace de Loyola and his followers take an oath at the base of Montmartre to defend the Church and Pope. This is the founding of the Jesuit order. [36]
              • 17–18 October – Calvinists put up anti catholic posters in the streets of Paris and several towns in France, including on the door of king François Ier's bedroom in Amboise. The Parliament of Paris orders the arrest of two hundred suspected Calvinists, six of whom are burned on the night of 18 October, and many others before the end of the year. [36]
              • 17 November – The printer Antoine Augerau becomes the first printer to be burned at the stake, at Place Maubert, for publishing a book criticizing the sister of the King, Marguerite de Navarre, for her alleged sins.
              • 1 January – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor is welcomed to Paris with a solemn ceremony.
              • 19 August – The Sorbonne publishes the first Index, or list of forbidden books.
              • 7 November – François I creates the Grand Bureau des Pauvres, responsible for assisting the indigent, beggers and vagabonds, under the authority of the Bureau de la Ville, or city administration. [37]
              • Construction begins of the Hôtel Carnavalet, now the Museum of the History of Paris.
              • 2 August – Letters of patent from François I approve the reconstruction of the west wing of the Louvre, to be done by the architect Pierre Lescot with decoration by sculptor Jean Goujon.
              • 3 August – The printer Étienne Dolet is burned at the stake on Place Maubert. Two other printers are burned that summer, Michel Vincent (19 August) and Pierre Gresteau (13 September).
              • 31 March – Death of King François I, who is succeeded by his son, Henry II.
              • 22 April – For the first time, a large shipment of firewood is made by floating the logs down the river in a raft from the Nivernais region to Paris.
              • 8 October – The Parlement de Paris creates a commission, called the Chambre ardente, to prosecute Protestants.
              • December – The pont Saint-Michel is wrecked by the collision of a boat. The architect Philibert Delorme is commissioned to build a new bridge. [38]
              • 16 June – Inauguration of the Fontaine des Innocents, the oldest existing fountain in Paris, with decoration by Jean Goujon. [39][40]
              • 8 September – King Henry II signs letters of patent to build a new wall around the faubourgs of the left bank.
              • 4 January – Architect Pierre Lescot receives the contract to rebuild the Petit-Pont.
              • Introduction of frozen sorbets to Paris by Italian limonadiers, or lemonade-makers.
              • February – First performance of a French tragedy, Cléopâtre captive, by Etienne Jodelle. Henry II attends the performance.
              • 7 February – The Parliament of Paris forbids secret schools which provide religious instruction.
              • 12 July – First stone placed for a new city gate, called the Porte Neuve and then the Porte de la Conférence, at the western edge of the Jardin des Tuileries.
              • 11 August – Many Parisians flee the city after a Spanish army advancing from Flanders defeats the French at Saint-Quentin. Queen Catherine de' Medici remains in the city and helps re-establish confidence.
              • 13 May – Gathering of thousands of Protestants at the Pré-aux-Clercs for an open-air service, despite threats from the city authorities.
              • 1559
                • 25 May – First synod of Calvinists on rue des Marais (now rue Visconti) formally establishes the Reformed Church of France on May 29.
                • 10 June – The Parliament of Paris debates new royal edicts prohibiting the Protestant church. Henry II personally attends the session, and the members calling for tolerance are arrested. [41]
                • 30 June – During the celebrations of the marriages of the sister and daughter of King Henry II on rue Saint-Antoine, Henry II is mortally wounded in the eye by a lance carried by the commander of his Scottish guard, Gabriel de Montgomery. He dies on July 10, and his young and sickly son François II succeeds him.
                • 23 December – Anne du Bourg, a member of the Parliament of Paris and Catholic defender of tolerance for Protestants, is first hung and then burned at the stake for opposing the King's views.
                • 5 December – On the death of François II, his ten-year-old brother Charles IX succeeds him.
                • 29 December – the "Tumulte" of Saint-Médard. Catholics attack Protestants conducting a service at the maison du Patriarche, near the church of Saint-Médard. The building where the service was held is burned the next day.
                • 4 April – The connétable de Montmorency orders the burning of the chairs and pews of the Protestant temples of Popincourt and Jerusalem.
                • 2 July – Opening by the Jesuits of the Collége de Clermont, today Lycée Louis-le-Grand.
                • November – A royal edict creates the tribunal des juges consuls, ancestor of the modern Tribunal de Commerce. It meets in the Abbaye de Saint-Magloire on rue Saint-Denis (at the site of today's number 82).
                • Construction begins of the Tuileries Palace for Catherine de' Medici, widow of Henry II. The edifice is designed by Philibert Delorme.
                • 14 July – A royal ordinance modifies how municipal elections are conducted under the new rules, the cities present the King with two lists of candidates, and the King decides.
                • 9 March – New regulations for the façades of houses: wooden decoration must be replaced by cut stone or plaster.
                • 1 August – Decision taken to build a quay along the river at what is now Chaillot.
                • Creation of the Marché Neuf, or new market, at the west end of the Petit-Pont and beginning of the construction of the Quai de Gloriette.
                • 12 July – construction begins of a new city wall on the west, which includes the Tuileries Palace and the gardens of the Tuileries.
                • City militia reorganized into neighborhood companies commanded by captains the companies of each quarter of the city are formed into columns commanded by colonels.
                • 30 June – Several members of a wealthy Protestant family, the Gastines, are sentenced to death, and their house demolished and replaced by a cross to expiate their "sins".
                • 6 March – The first troupe of Italian actors, called I Gelosi, arrives in Paris. After a few performances, they are banned by the Parliament of Paris. [42]
                  • 15 August – Marriage of Henri de Bourbon, King Henry III of Navarre, with Marguerite de Valois, the sister of King Charles IX. The town is full of Protestants for the ceremony, and also with ultra-Catholics, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise.
                  • 22 August – Admiral Gaspard II de Coligny, a prominent Protestant leader, is attacked and wounded on rue des Poulies, not far from the Louvre.
                  • 24 August – At four o'clock in the morning, the bells of the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois give the signal to begin the massacre of Protestants, known as the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. The killing continues until August 30, and takes the lives of about two thousand Protestants in the city. [42]
                  • The architect Jean Bullant begins construction of a new residence for Catherine de' Medici, the future Hôtel de Soissons, finished in 1584.
                  • 30 May – King Charles IX dies at the Château de Vincennes, and is succeeded by his brother Henry III.
                  • Founding by Nicolas Houel of the first school of pharmacy in France.
                  • 19 June – First performance of the Italian theater troupe I Gelosi in the hall of the Petit-Bourbon, with great success. [44]
                  • A commission is named to study projects for a new bridge over the Seine. On 15 February 1578, Henry III chooses the project for a bridge across the western end of the Île-de-la-Cité, the future Pont Neuf.
                  • 24 September – First performance of a ballet at the French court: Circé by Balthazar de Beaujoyeux, performed at the Louvre.
                  • The Gregorian Calendar is introduced in Paris, with the elimination of ten days 9 December is followed by 20 December.
                  • The teaching of Arabic is introduced at the Collège de France.
                  • 9 May – Henry I, Duke of Guise, leader of the ulta-Catholic faction, makes a triumphal entry into Paris, cheered by the Parisians.
                  • 12 May – Day of the Barricades. The Duke of Guise leads an insurrection against Henry III. The King flees Paris for the Loire Valley on 13 May.
                  • 18–20 May – the Holy League, the Catholic party, takes charge of the administration of Paris. The Duke of Guise is named lieutenant-general of the armies.
                  • 25 December – After the murder of the Duke of Guise and Louis II, Cardinal de Guise at the Château de Blois, the Sorbonne declares that the French owe no more allegiance to King Henry III. A new city council of forty members, dominated by supporters of the Holy League, is chosen.
                  • 13 March – The league proclaims the cardinal de Bourbon is the new king, under the name Charles X.
                  • 1 August – Henry III is murdered at the Château de Saint-Cloud by a Dominican friar, Jacques Clément.
                  • 2 August – Henry III of Navarre becomes Henry IV, king of France,
                  • 1 November Henry IV tries to capture Paris by a surprise attack on the walls around the left bank, but fails.
                  • 7 May – Henry IV attacks the city again, this time at the faubourgs Saint-Denis and Saint-Martin, but the attack fails.
                  • 14 May – The Catholic League holds a large procession in the city to keep up the morale of the catholic Parisians.
                  • 8 August – Popular revolt within Paris against the Catholic League, demanding either bread or peace. The rebellion is harshly suppressed.
                  • 10–11 September – Night attack on the city by Henry IV between the gates of Saint-Jacques and Saint-Marcel. The attack is unsuccessful. Henry IV lifts the siege when he learns that a Spanish army is approaching to aid the Catholic League.
                  • 2 September – The ruling council of the Catholic League, called the Seize ("Sixteen"), offers the crown of France to Phillip II of Spain.
                  • 15 November – Growing tensions between the Seize and the Parliament of Paris. Three leaders of Parliament are arrested, tried and hanged.
                  • 4 December – The Seize are arrested by Charles de Mayenne, military commander of the Catholic League, and four members are hung at the Louvre. Growing discontent in Paris against the league.
                  • 1593
                    • 16 May – Henry IV announces that he will give up the Protestant faith.
                    • 25 July – Henry IV formally converts to Catholicism in the Basilica of St Denis.
                    • 9 January – Surveying begins for a new (southern) wing of Louvre, on the side of the Seine river, the galerie du bord-de-l'eau, to connect the Louvre with the Tuileries Palace.
                    • 14 March – The Catholic League's governor of Paris, the comte de Brissac, agrees to surrender the city to Henry IV in exchange for money and the promise of the title of maréchal. [47]
                    • 22 March – The gates of Paris are opened to the army of Henry IV.
                    • 24 March – Henry IV enters the city, and is welcomed by a cheering crowd.
                    • 12 May – Expulsion of the Jesuits from the city, declared "enemies of the State," by the Parliament of Paris and the rector of the university.
                    • 23 December – The pont aux Meuniers collapses. It is replaced in 1609 by the pont Marchand.
                    • 13 April – The Edict of Nantes brings an end to the wars of religion. Protestant temples are banned inside Paris and within five leagues of the city. The first Protestant temples open at Grigny, then at Ablon. [47]

                    The Paris of Henry IV and Louis XIII Edit

                    • 1600
                      • 28 September – New statutes of the University of Paris published which increase royal authority and reduce power of students.
                      • Tapestry weavers from Brussels introduce Flemish techniques at what later became the Gobelins Manufactory. [47]
                      • 2 January – Construction begins La Samaritaine, a giant pump, located at the Pont Neuf, to raise drinking water from the Seine and to irrigate the Tuileries gardens. It began working 3 October 1608. A department store of the same name is built next to the site of the pump in the 19th century.
                      • 12 November – Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully becomes superintendent of buildings to Henry IV, and is put in charge of the works of the Louvre and Tuileries Palace.
                      • 20 June – King Henry IV crosses the Pont Neuf to inaugurate the bridge, though work is not finished until July 1606. It is the first Paris bridge with sidewalks and without buildings [47]
                      • 29 June – Convent of the Capucines founded on rue Saint-Honoré.
                        • rebuilt. [39]
                      • July – Henry IV signs letters patent ordering construction of Place Royale (now Place des Vosges), the first residential square in Paris, on the site of the former park of the royal Hôtel des Tournelles. It is completed in 1612.
                        • 1 August – Royal authorization given to build a Protestant church at Charenton.
                        • Workshop created within the Louvre to make tapestries of silk, "in the Persian and Turkish fashion". [48]
                        • 6 February – Opening of rue Dauphine, followed shortly by rue Christine and rue d'Anjou Dauphine (now Rue de Nesle), in honor of Henry IV's third son, Gaston de France, the Dauphin, bearing the title of duc d'Anjou.
                        • 28 May – Approval given for creation of Place Dauphine, on the site of the old royal gardens on Île de la Cité.
                        • 14 May – Assassination of Henry IV by Ravaillac on Rue de la Ferronnerie, while the King's carriage is caught in a traffic jam.
                        • 18 August – First stone placed of the Collège Royal, later the Collège de France.
                        • 5–7 April – Celebration of the wedding contract between Louis XIII and Anne of Austria and inauguration of the Place Royale, with the famous Ballet équestre du Carrousel taking place within the Place Royale. [49]
                        • 19 April – Contract signed to create the Île Saint-Louis by combining two small islands, the Île aux Vaches and Île Notre-Dame, and building a new bridge, the Pont Marie, to the Right Bank. The work was finished in 1635.
                        • 2 April – Construction begins of the Luxembourg Palace and gardens by Marie de' Medici, widow of Henry IV. It was completed in 1621. [48]
                        • 30 January – A major flood washes away the Pont Saint-Michel and damages the Pont aux Changeurs.
                        • 24 July – King Louis XIII places the first stone of the façade of the church of Saint-Gervais. Work of the architect Salomon de Brosse, the façade was finished in 1621.
                        • 24 April – Concini, Minister of King Louis XIII and favorite the Queen Mother, Marie de' Medici, is murdered on the entry bridge of the Louvre, probably on Louis XIII's orders Marie de' Medici is exiled to Blois.
                        • 22 October – Letters of patent given for three companies of chair bearers, the first organized public transport within the city. [50]
                        • June – Authority over printers, bookbinders and book stores is transferred from the Church to secular authorities.
                        • Opening of the first Pont de la Tournelle, made of wood. The bridge was destroyed by blocks of ice floating on the river in 1637 and 1651 and rebuilt in stone in 1654.
                        • A windmill, called the moulin du palais, is built atop Montmartre. In the 19th century, it is renamed the Moulin de la galette (it became a famous landmark in the 19th century).
                        • 2 September – Cardinal Richelieu becomes the proviseur, or dean, of the Sorbonne.
                        • 22 October – For centuries, the bishop of Paris was under the authority of the archbishop of Sens. On this date Paris was given its own archbishop, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris established. [12]
                        • 19 May – First water arrives from Arcueil, in a new channel following the route of the ancient Roman aqueduct, at the new reservoir on rue d'Enfer, near the present Observatory.
                        • Construction begins of the church of Notre-Dame de Bonne-Nouvelle.
                        • 24 April – First stone placed for the Pavillon de l'Horloge of the Louvre Palace.
                        • 31 July – Anne of Austria lays the first stone of the monastery of Val-de-Grâce, on the site of the modern hospital of that name.
                        • 17 April – Saint Vincent de Paul founds the Congregation of the Mission charitable community of monks.
                        • Construction of the Pont au Double to connect the right bank with the Hôtel-Dieu hospital on the Île-de-la-Cité.
                        • January – Royal decree establishes the Jardin royal des plantes médicinales, future Jardin des Plantes, though the site is not specified.
                        • February – Royal edict forbids duels.
                        • 25 February – Consecration of the church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, begun in 1492.
                        • 25 April – Civil disturbances at Les Halles and at the cemetery of Saint-Jean caused by the high price of bread.
                        • 1 December – Establishment of the first Lutheran church in Paris, a chapel at the Embassy of Sweden.
                        • 7 March – Louis XIII lays the first stone of the Jesuit church, Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis, on rue Saint-Antoine. Work was finished in 1641.
                        • 29 July – A royal decree forbids construction outside the limits of the city.
                        • Construction begins of the Palais Richelieu, later to be renamed Palais-Cardinal, the new residence of Cardinal Richelieu, finished in 1636.
                        • 9 December – Louis XIII lays the first stone of the church which in 1633 becomes the church of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires.
                        • 29 December – The theater troupe known as the Comédiens du Roi is given permission to perform plays at the hôtel de Bourgogne[51]
                        • Construction of the pont Saint-Landry between the Île-de-la-Cité and the recently created Île-Saint-Louis.
                        • 30 May – First issue of La Gazette de France, the first weekly magazine in France, published by Théophraste Renaudot. Published every Friday, its last issue was on 30 September 1915. [52]
                        • 9 October – Contract to build a new wall around the city, reinforced with bastions. Work continued until 1647.
                        • Construction of the pont Rouge (also known as the pont Barbier) to replace the old bac (ferry). In 1689, the bridge was rebuilt of stone, and named the Pont Royal. [51]
                        • 21 March – The state buys land in the faubourg Saint-Victor to create the future Jardin des plantes.
                        • 23 November – the State Council approves the construction of new defenses to protect the Faubourg Saint-Honoré, Montmartre and Villeneuve. They were completed in 1636.
                        • 13 March – First meeting of the Académie française. The academy was formally established by letters of patent on 27 January 1635. [53]
                        • 13 October – A corporation of the distillers and vendors of eau de vie is formed, breaking away from the corporation of vinegar-makers, due to the growing popularity of the beverage. [53]
                        • Théâtre du Marais, also known as the Troupe de Montdory or the Troupe du Roi au Marais, founded in an unused tennis court on the Vieille Rue du Temple opposite the church of the Capuchins.
                        • 25 May Cardinal Richelieu begins construction of the new chapel of the College of Sorbonne, designed by Jean Mercier, and completed in 1642. [54]
                        • 6 June – Cardinal Richelieu bequeathes his new residence to King Louis XIII it becomes the Palais-Royal at his death in 1642.
                        • August – Panic and flight of many from Paris caused by the invasion of the Spanish army into Picardy.
                        • January – Great success of Corneille's play Le Cid, given by the Troupe du Roi au Marais
                        • 26 April – Consecration of the church of Saint-Eustache.
                        • 15 January – The Royal Council orders the placing of thirty-one stones to mark the edges of the city building beyond the stones without royal approval is forbidden. The stones are in place by 4 August. [53]
                        • Founding of the Imprimerie royale, or royal printing house, within the Louvre.
                        • Reconstruction of the Hôtel de Villeroy, by Nicolas V de Villeroy, later tutor of Louis XIV.
                        • 16 January – First permanent theater in Paris opens within the Palais-Royal. [6]

                        The Paris of Louis XIV Edit

                        • 1643
                          • 14 May – Death of Louis XIII in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Louis XIV, his four-and-a-half-year-old son, becomes king, under the regency of his mother, Anne of Austria, and the influence of Cardinal Mazarin.
                          • 30 June – Molière, Madeleine Béjart and several others found the Illustre Théâtre on rue de la Perle, in the Marais.
                          • 7 October – The young king and his court move from the Louvre to the Palais-Royal.
                          • First coffee house or café opens in Paris, but is not profitable and closes. The first successful café does not arrive until 1672. [53]
                          • 11 October – Cardinal Mazarin moves into the Hôtel Tubeuf on rue des Petits-Champs, next to the Palais-Royal, and opens his personal library to scholars. In 1682, he donated his library to the Collège des Quatre-Nations, where it remains today as the Bibliothèque Mazarine ("Mazarine Library"). [55]
                          • 1 January – The theater company of Molière and Madeleine Béjart begins performing in the tennis court of Mestayers (jeu de paume des Mestayers). Molière goes deeply into debt to support the company, and is imprisoned in August 1645 in the Grand Châtelet. [56]
                          • 28 February – First performance of an opera in Paris, La Finita Panza by Marco Marazzoli, in the hall of the Palais-Royal.
                          • 20 February – Construction begins of the church of Saint-Sulpice, not completed until 1788.
                          • 27 January – Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture founded by Charles Le Brun and Eustache Le Sueur. [57]
                          • 26 August – Cardinal Mazarin has the leaders of the Parlement, or law courts, of Paris arrested, because they have refused to enforce his edicts on fiscal policy and taxes. This begins the insurrection of Paris against the royal government known as the Fronde parlementaire (1648–1649).
                          • 27 August – The Day of the Barricades. More than twelve hundred barricades erected in Paris against the royal authorities, and prisoners seized by Mazarin are liberated on the 29th.
                          • 13 September – King Louis XIV, the Regent Queen Mother and Mazarin leave Paris for Rueil, then Saint-Germain-en-Laye. After negotiations with the Parlement, they accept the Parlement's propositions and return to Paris on October 30.
                          • Mineral springs discovered at Passy, at the present-day rue des Eaux. The mineral baths there remain fashionable until the end of the 19th century.
                          • 18 January – Mazarin orders the arrest of Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, le Grand Condé, who has turned against the government, and of the Fronde of the Parlement.
                          • 21 January – A flood carries away half of the Pont de la Tournelle and one arch of the Pont au Change.
                          • 30 January – The Fronde of the princes (Fronde des Princes, 1650–1653), led by Condé, and Fronde of the Paris Parlement join together against Mazarin.
                          • 6–7 January – Cardinal Mazarin flees from Paris.
                          • 11 April – Condé, leader of the Fronde of princes, enters Paris, pursued by the royal army.
                          • 2 July – The Battle of Paris. The royal army, led by Turenne, defeats the army of Condé outside the city Condé and his men take refuge inside the city walls.
                          • 4 July – Soldiers of Condé lay siege to the Hôtel de Ville to force the Parlement to join the Fronde of the princes.
                          • 13 October – The Parlement sends a delegation to Mazarin and the King at Saint-Germain-en Laye, asking for peace.
                          • 14 October – The Fronde collapses, and Condé flees the city.
                          • 21 October – Louis XIV and his court return in triumph to Paris, and take up residence in the Louvre.
                          • 22 October – An amnesty is proclaimed for the Fronde participants, except for its leaders.
                          • 3 February – Cardinal Mazarin returns to Paris. On 4 July, the leaders of Paris honor him with a banquet at the Hôtel de Ville and a fireworks show. [58]
                          • 1 March – A historic flood of the Seine washes away the Pont Marie, even though it was built of stone. The water reaches an historic high of 8.81 meters, higher than the 8.50 meters during the 1910 floods.
                          • 24 June – The theater troupe of Molière is given the privilege to perform before the King, a privilege earlier given to the troupe of the Hôtel de Bourgogne and the Comédiens italiens.
                          • Introduction of coffee in Paris. It had previously been served in Marseille in 1626, but did not become popular until 1669, during the visit to Paris of the first ambassador from the Turkish sultan. [58]
                          • 26 August – A new square, place du Trône (now Place de la Nation) is created on the east side of Paris for a ceremony to welcome Louis XIV and his new bride, Maria Theresa of Spain.
                          • 20 January – Theater company of Molière takes up residence at the Palais-Royal
                          • 3–7 March – The will of Cardinal Mazarin endows the founding of the Collège des Quatre-Nations, to grant free education for sixty young nobles from the recently annexed provinces of Alsace, Pignerol, Artois and Roussillon. The architect Le Vau is selected to design the building.
                          • 14 February – Installation of the salle des machines, a hall for theater performances and spectacles, in the Tuileries.
                          • March – Royal letters of patent give to Laudati de Caraffa the privilege of establishing stations of torch-bearers and lantern-bearers to escort people through the dark streets at night.
                          • 18 March – First public transport line established of coaches running regularly between porte Saint-Antoine and Luxembourg. The service continues until 1677.
                          • 30 March Académie royale de danse founded. [60]
                          • 5–6 June – A grand circular procession, or carrousel, gives its name to the open area where it is held, between the Louvre and the Tuileries Palace.
                          • 6 June – The King purchases the Gobelins Manufactory of tapestries and places it under the direction of Charles Le Brun, court painter of King Louis XIV. [61]
                          • 1663
                            • 6 January – Large banquet given at the Louvre, concluding with the premiere of L'École des femmes by Molière.
                            • 8 February – The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture re-organized by Louis XIV and his minister Colbert.
                            • First exposition of works by members of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, the origin of the future Salons.
                            • October – Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs (mirror manufactory) established at Reuilly. [62]
                            • 17 February – The number of authorized printing houses in Paris is reduced to thirty-six to facilitate censorship.
                            • March – The founding of the Paris Observatory, which is finished in 1672. It is located in the avenue de l'Observatoire. The Paris meridian becomes the meridian on all French maps: it runs through the center of the salle méridienne (also known as salle de Cassini) of the observatory. [23]
                            • 15 March – A royal edict creates the position of Lieutenant-General of Police. The first to hold the office is Gabriel Nicolas de La Reynie, named on 29 March.
                            • 18 August – First regulations governing the height of buildings in Paris and the faubourgs.
                            • 2 September – First royal ordinance for street lighting. 2,736 lanterns with candles are installed on 912 streets.
                            • 15 September – The butte des Moulins, between, rue des Petits-Champs and rue Saint-Roch, is divided into lots, and twelve new streets created.
                            • December – The royal Manufacture des meubles de la Couronne (royal manufacture of furniture) is created.
                            • 28 June – Académie royale de musique founded, the ancestor of the Paris Opera. [63]
                            • 6 June – The King orders the demolition of the city walls built by Charles V and Louis XIII, to be replaced by boulevards lined with trees.
                            • 17 January – Performance of Psyché in the Salle des machines or Théâtre des Tuileries, staged by Molière, Corneille, Lully and Philippe Quinault. [64]
                            • 10 February – Louis XIV moves the royal court to Versailles.
                            • 30 November – First stone placed for the Hôtel des Invalides, a home for wounded soldiers. It was inaugurated in October 1674.
                            • Two large pumps built on the pont Notre-Dame to lift drinking water from the Seine. They continued working until 1858.
                            • 17 March – Decree of the council to build the quai Neuf, which becomes the quai Le Pelletier. founded.
                            • November – The owners of jeu de paume courts are allowed to install tables for billiards, a popular new game. [65]
                            • Limonadiers' guild established. [66]
                            • 18 August – Comédie-Française founded.
                            • March – Colbert orders that a count be made of Protestants in Paris, and warns them to convert from what he calls "the so-called reformed religion".
                            • 6 May – The official seat of the monarchy is moved from the Tuileries Palace to Château de Versailles.
                            • November – The Collège de Clermont is renamed Collegium Ludovici Magni, Collège de Louis le Grand.
                            • The drinking of coffee with milk comes into fashion, described by Madame de Sévigné in a letter of 17 December 1688.
                            • 4 July – The state buys the hôtel de Vendôme and the convent of the Capucines in order to build the future place Louis-le-Grand, the modern Place Vendôme.
                            • 22 October – The Paris Parlement registers the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, revoking the toleration of the Protestant Church. The same day begins the demolition of the Protestant temple at Charenton.
                            • 25 October – First stone placed for the pont Royal to replace the old pont Rouge. It was completed in June 1689.
                              , opens and remains the oldest Paris café in operation. [62]
                          • 28 March – Inauguration of Place des Victoires, with an equestrian statue of Louis XIV in the center. Since the houses around it have not yet been built, they are represented by painted backdrops. [67]
                            • Ordinance permitting the Vilain family to open public baths along the river between the Cours-la-Reine and the Pont Marie.
                            • February – Creation of the position of the Lieutenant-General of the King for the government of Paris. The first to hold the title is Jean-Baptiste Le Ragois de Bretonvilliers de Saint-Dié.
                            • 20 October – During a bread shortage, the city authorities distribute bread to the poor. The effort ends in a riot, with many killed.
                            • June – The Comédie Italienne theater troupe is banned after they perform La Fausse prude at the Hôtel de Bourgogne the play has an unflattering character clearly representing Madame de Maintenon, the morganatic wife of Louis XIV. The actors are compelled to leave the city.
                            • 18 September – A mysterious prisoner wearing a black velvet mask is incarcerated in the Bastille. Voltaire romanticizes this story into that of a prisoner with an iron mask, who later becomes the subject of the novel The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later by Alexandre Dumas. [68]
                            • 1701
                              • December – A royal edict divides the city into twenty police districts, added to the sixteen quarters created by the Hôtel de Ville. [68]
                              • 28 August – Consecration of the church of Les Invalides, in the presence of the King. [68]
                              • 6 January – Extreme cold hits Paris, that will last until the end of March. Temperature drops to -40 Celsius, (estimated as the thermometer was invented that year.)the Seine freezes, causing shipments of food by boat to be stopped. The cold wave paralyzes all of France, making it also impossible to bring supplies to Paris by road. In that period, twenty four to thirty thousand persons die from hunger and cold in Paris alone near one million in all of France. [68]
                              • 15 March – Seine begins to thaw, causing flood.
                              • 5 April – First food shipment reaching Paris by road.
                              • 20 August – Food riot quelled by the army, leaving two dead.
                              • 7 August – Royal Council prohibits building on the boulevards from the Porte Saint-Honoré to Porte Saint-Antoine without authorization of the Bureau de la Ville. [69]
                              • 1 September – Death of Louis XIV. Philippe d'Orléans becomes Regent and on 30 December moves the five-year-old king Louis XV and Court from Versailles to Paris. [70]
                              • 31 December – An ordinance authorizes the first public ball in Paris, the masked ball at the Paris Opera. [70]
                              • 2 May – The founding of the Banque générale, the first private bank in Paris, by the Scotsman John Law. [70]
                              • 18 May – The Comédie Italienne theater troupe, banned by Louis XIV in 1697 to perform in Paris, is allowed to return and performs at the Palais Royal. [70]
                              • 4 December – The Banque générale becomes the Banque royale and effectively the central bank of France. Two-thirds of its assets are government bills and notes.
                              • 10 July – The construction begins of the Hôtel d'Évreux, the town house of Louis Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Count of Évreux, finished in 1720. In the 19th century it became the Élysée Palace, residence of the presidents of the French Republic. [70]
                              • Completion of Place Louis-le-Grand, now Place Vendôme.
                              • 24 March – Bank of John Law closes, unable to pay its subscribers. Financial panic follows, and the Paris stock market is closed until 1724.
                              • 10 July – Rioters storm the Banque royale, demanding to exchange their banknotes for silver. Banker John Law flees to Brussels, then Venice. [71]
                              • 28 November – Public execution of the bandit Louis-Dominique Cartouche, famed for robbing the rich and giving to the poor. Thanks to a play about him the same year by the Comédie Italienne, he became a Parisian folk hero. [71]
                              • Construction begins of the Palais-Bourbon, finished in 1728. After the Revolution of 1789, it became the seat of the National Assembly.
                              • 1723
                                • 23 February – A royal regulation forbids printing houses and publishing outside of the Latin quarter on the Left Bank. The law is intended to make censorship more effective. [71]
                                • 16 January – First street signs, made of iron painted white with black letters, put in place. They were easy to steal, and in 1729 were replaced by carved stone plaques. [72]
                                • 10 September – A new royal regulation simplifies the procedure for searching publishing houses and bookstores, strengthening censorship. [74]
                                • Premiere of Rameau's Les Indes galantes.[75]
                                • 26 March – Permission given by the royal censors for the publication of the first Encyclopédie. It was published between 1751 and 1772. [76]
                                • 22 January – The École Militaire is established. [76]
                                • 31 January – The first Encyclopédie is condemned by the archbishop of Paris. [76]

                                Construction begins on the church of Sainte-Geneviève (now the Panthéon).

                                At the time of the Eiffel Tower

                                In 1866, the city counted 1 600 000 inhabitants. The rapid rise of population led Baron Haussmann to undertake massive town planning between 1852 and 1870, cutting across old districts to create large boulevards such as Boulevard Haussmann, Boulevard Saint-Michel and Avenue de l'Opéra. Construction of 5 story apartment buildings was feverish until WW1. The train stations, Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Opéra Garnier are legacies of that time.

                                The Eiffel Tower was designed for the 1889 world exhibition to celebrate the progress of technology. It was built in just two years by 132 workers and 50 engineers. The Tower was much criticized by Parisians when it was built. The Eiffel Tower was planned to be demolished in 1909. It was saved at the very last moment as it could be turned into a telecommunication tower. With 7 million visitors yearly, this iconic monument fully pays for itself. It was the world's tallest building until 1930.

                                Paris history: construction of Eiffel Tower in 1888

                                Detailed history of the Haussman renovation of Paris. 1853 - 1870

                                Since Etienne Marcel in the Middle Ages, through the wars of religion and the Revolutions of 1789-93, 1830 and 1848, Paris had to allow the seat of national power to coexist with social unrest. After the coup d'état of December 2, 1851 by Napoléon III, the new regime took over the management of Paris. In 1850, it was an industrial city of over a million inhabitants, many of whom were provincials who fled the countryside to get closer to one of the main French employment pools.

                                Since the last works of the architect Ledoux (1736-1806), urban development had been chaotic. The field was left open to entrepreneurs, whose urban development projects for the construction of their factories were evaluated only for their economic interest, and not for their social value.

                                Napoléon III often stayed in Compiègne, close to hunting forests, but the actual seat of imperial and legislative power was in Paris. While the capital resembled a working-class and insurgent city, the Emperor had the serious desire to renovate it. Appointed Prefect of the Seine in 1853, Baron Haussmann first annexed a dozen cities contained within the fortifications of 1840. The city gained another 300,000 inhabitants, and its size was increased by 40%. In a second step, Haussmann reorganized the administration of the city which municipal power was distributed among 20 arrondissements, to break the old solidarities of the former districts.

                                Napoléon III was very attentive to Haussmann's proposals: he wanted to pierce wide avenues in the heart of the old town, according to an orthogonal plan, in order to allow better circulation of the army and the police in the event of riot, with a view to show the authority of the regime. In ten years, Haussmann ordered the destruction of 25,000 houses, while he promoted the reconstruction of 75,000 buildings. This new Paris was organized around the five train stations which radiated out over the province so that the city offered travelers the image of the splendor of the regime. Designed like the new temples of the Empire, the train stations overlooked airy avenues bordered by five-story buildings which architectural unity imposed a new and typically Haussmann style.

                                Haussmann was also committed to embellish the representation of power: the courthouse was completely renovated, the Louvre was completed, Les Tuileries were rehabilitated, new police headquarters were built, while the construction of a new opera house was entrusted at Garnier.

                                Parisians had to endure the harms of restructuring, but once the project was completed, the entire population benefited from a modernized and embellished city. The main concern was health as the city had been decimated by a cholera epidemic in 1838. Thanks to Haussmann, a sewer network of several hundred kilometers ran through the basement of the capital. It completed the effort started by engineer Belgrand under King Louis-Philippe. A drinking water supply network was developed, hence the proliferation of monumental public fountains. Les Halles were located in the heart of the capital to provide supplies to an ever-growing population. Finally, the city was ventilated by the creation of parks (Parc Monceau, Parc Montsouris, Parc des Buttes-Chaumont) and woods (Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes), according to the London model.

                                -644AH (AD18) - The printing press is invented by the Museaum in Alexandria. The technology is used to copy many of the works from the Library of Alexandria to be distributed to scholars across the known world.

                                -600AH (AD40) - There are 100 printing presses across the Roman Empire. The largest are in Alexandria, Athens, Antioch, Lutetia and Rome.

                                -596AH (AD70) - Hero of Alexandria dies. His books are printed along with other works from the Library of Alexandria.

                                -564AH (AD100) - The number of printed books and scrolls in the Roman Empire reaches 200 million. Egypt has generated considerable wealth from the export of textile papers.

                                -554AH (AD105) - Exchange of written material between Rome and China via Persia leads to the developmet of wood pulp paper by the Romans, ending the Egyptian monopoly on textile papers. Lacquer and folding umbrellas are also developed by the Romans as a direct consequence of exchanges with China.

                                -522AH (AD120) - The Garamantes begin to use designs from Hero's books to construct water pumps. The Garamantes also build the first windmills, which soon spread to Roman North Africa.

                                -476AH (AD186) - The first steam engine is invented in Athens using Hero's aeolipile as a boiler and Hero's wind organ as a piston, as well as to transfer linear to rotary motion.

                                -462AH (AD193) - The first commercial paddle steamer is launched from Corinth.

                                -460AH (AD194) - The number of printed books and scrolls in the Roman Empire reaches 500 million.

                                -338AH (AD297) - Roman Emperor Diocletian founds the first national banks as part of his economic reforms.

                                -330AH (AD302) - The number of printed books and scrolls in the Roman Empire reaches 1 billion.

                                -314AH (AD314) - The New World is discovered by the Roman Empire.

                                -286AH (AD366) - The Roman Empire claims much of the New World, subdueing the Mayans and the Moche.

                                -256AH (AD395) - The Roman Empire splits into the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire.

                                -226AH (AD410) - Rome is sacked by the Visigoths.

                                -200AH (AD451) - The Western Roman Empire is attacked by the Huns and begins to collapse.

                                -150AH (AD476) - The Western Roman Empire collapses after the retirement of its last emperor. Roman colonies in the New World become independant.

                                -94AH (AD532) - Gunpowder invented in the Byzantine Empire.

                                135AH (AD753) - The Chalukya Empire in southern India falls under the sway of the militaristic Rastrakutas, who would employ the latest military technology to conquer the whole of India.

                                142AH (AD760) - Industrial Revolution begins in the Caliphate.

                                333AH (AD945) - Terrorist attack on Baghdad (the Caliphate).

                                362AH (AD973) - The Rastrakutas are ousted from Chalukya government, to be replaced by the Hindu-Chalukya single-party state, in reaction to Islamist pressures from the Caliphate.

                                396AH (AD1006) - Breakeven nuclear fusion achieved in Song China.

                                437AH (AD1046) - First artificially intelligent computer built in Song China.

                                How Yoplait got its start

                                More than 100,000 French dairy farmers couldn’t go wrong when they banded together in 1964 to create the dairy cooperative that only a year later would become Yoplait.

                                At the time, the farmers from six regional dairy co-ops were eager to sell their wide range of products including yogurt on a national level in France. They knew they would have a better chance to accomplish this goal with the creation of Sociéte de Diffusion de Marque, also known as Sodima.

                                Yogurt was key, and the co-op leaders knew so at a formal meeting during the early stages of their partnership. They shared their long-term goals in the parlor of Paris’ famous Hotel Lutetia.

                                “We had foreknowledge of the market,” said Andre Gaillard, Sodima president at the time. “We firmly believe that yogurt is a product of the future, the essential food for future generations.”

                                Boy, were they right. As Yoplait has become one of the world’s most popular yogurts. Its products are now available in more than 70 countries with its largest markets being France, the U.S., the United Kingdom, Mexico, Australia and Israel.

                                The Yoplait name emerged in 1965 when the French dairy farmers from those six co-ops dropped their own respective brands, and came up with a moniker derived from the contraction of two of Sodima’s more recognizable member co-ops – Yola and Coplait.

                                Yoplait’s cow

                                Yoplait officially launched on Sept. 25, 1965 in Paris, relying on two logos that temporarily co-existed. The six-petal flower – which lost a petal in 2009 – is the one most people equate with Yoplait, as each petal represented the six founding co-ops.

                                But the other logo was a bizarre image.

                                Yoplait also had Michonnette, a cow used in print advertisements. Lying in the meadow with milk streaming from her udders and into empty cups of Yoplait that she held in her hooves, Michonnette was a sight to behold.

                                The creation of renowned French poster artist Raymond Savignac, Michonnette (pronounced “mi-show-net”), puzzled some people and received a mixed reception from Sodima co-op members.

                                Robert Commandeur, former Sodima supervisory board president remembered: “We had to overcome the reluctance of producers who said, ‘You are crazy to present things like this, a cow with paws upwards! Well, if this is to sell our milk …’”

                                A real life version of Michonnette appeared at Yoplait’s grand launch party. The plan was to have the cow on the sixth floor of the company’s Paris advertising agency, where the celebration was held. But due to security reasons, Michonnette couldn’t make the trip. Instead, the cow stayed in the lobby to greet guests.

                                Michonnette was a pioneer bovine since she was the first cow Yoplait used in its advertising scheme. Today, Yoplait continues to rely on cows to promote the rich, whole milk used to make its yogurt.

                                From France to Michigan

                                Yoplait’s first products were plain-flavored yogurt and cream. But by 1967, the company produced its first fruit-flavored yogurts.

                                The secret of Yoplait couldn’t be contained by the French for long, though.

                                By 1969, Switzerland became the first country outside of France to market Yoplait through the brand’s first franchising agreement. Then, in 1971, Yoplait crossed the Atlantic and found its way onto store shelves in the U.S. and in the Canadian province of Quebec.

                                However, it took the marketing savvy of a small U.S. company’s leader to expand Yoplait in North America.

                                In 1974, Michigan Cottage Cheese Co., led by William S. Bennet, acquired the U.S. licensing rights to make and market Yoplait in the U.S.

                                It took the Otsego, Michigan-based company a little more than a year to get Americans ready for Yoplait by installing the yogurt-making and packaging facilities at its plant in Reed City, Mich., and devise marketing and advertising programs.

                                In September 1975, the plant began test runs and the first container of Yoplait yogurt rolled off the line. By January 1976, Michigan Cottage Cheese launched Yoplait products full scale.

                                General Mills and Yoplait team up in 1977

                                General Mills’ ties with Yoplait began in October 1977 when we signed a franchise agreement with Sodima, giving us the exclusive rights to market the brand in the U.S. But prior to the agreement, it took at least two years for us to get to that point.

                                In 1975, Steve Rothschild, a General Mills executive vice president, was tasked with exploring the feasibility of yogurt as a new product for our company. He investigated a number of products as far away as Hamburg, Germany, before Yoplait caught his eye.

                                “One day I saw Yoplait on a grocery shelf in Minneapolis, so I took it to our corporate growth department, and I said, ‘Can you tell me anything about this?’ Within a week we were in Michigan,” he said.

                                Rothschild was referring to Michigan Cottage Cheese Co. Once the General Mills team determined yogurt could be a profitable endeavor, it secured the U.S. rights for Yoplait.

                                And along with the Yoplait marketing rights, General Mills also acquired the Reed City yogurt plant from Michigan Cottage Cheese Co. Today, Yoplait yogurt continues to be made there as well as at other U.S. plants.

                                Yoplait USA soon was established by General Mills. Within a few months, the brand captured 20 percent of the U.S. yogurt market thanks to a campaign that focused on the brand’s French origins.

                                As president of Yoplait USA from 1977-1983, Rothschild recognized the French value of Yoplait and his team launched a marketing campaign in 1979 showing American celebrities of the time speaking French.

                                For example, Yoplait hired actors Jack Klugman and Loretta Swit, and Los Angeles Dodgers manager Tommy Lasorda to promote the sophisticated French-ness of Yoplait.

                                A similar campaign arrived in 1981, noting what happens when a “real American” tries Yoplait yogurt. The pitchmen included comic strip detective Dick Tracy.Also, product placement of sorts in at least one movie may have raised the Yoplait’s profile. In the summer of 1983, box-office smash “Mr. Mom,” actor Michael Keaton plays poker using coupons for Yoplait yogurt.

                                By 1990, Sodima changed its name to Sodiaal – Sociéte de Diffusion Internationale Agroalimentaire, and global growth for Yoplait continued.

                                Along the way, Sodiaal gained another partner for Yoplait. In January 2002, the co-op sold a 50 percent stake in the company to private equity firm PAI Partners, a division of France-based banking giant BNP Paribas.

                                And that eventually led to General Mills’ acquisition of a majority stake in Yoplait in July 2011. We purchased a 51 percent stake – PAI Partners’ entire share as well as a 1 percent share from Sodiaal.

                                The business move would play well with our intent to accelerate Yoplait’s expansion into developing countries such as China. And it came to fruition in June of this year when Yoplait debuted in China.

                                Editor’s note: Look for more posts in our “Origin Stories” series in our History category.

                                Julian the Apostate 361 AD

                                Julian the Apostate served as an emperor in Rome between the years 361 and 363 AD where he can be found on the Biblical Timeline. He was an author and philosopher among his other responsibilities throughout his life. In 355, he was appointed as Caesar by Constantius II and victoriously stopped the Franks and the Alamanni.

                                One of his significant accomplishments included the defeat of the Alamanni during the Battle of Argentoratum, in 357. When he was in Lutetia, his soldiers proclaimed him as the Augustus, which was in 360. This started a civil war between him and Constantius. Unfortunately, before the conflict was settled, Constantius died just after Julian was called as his new successor. He fought against the Sassanid army where he was wounded badly and died.

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                                According to scholars, Julian had some accomplishments including his success as a social reformer, theosophist and military commander. He intended to direct the Empire to its old Roman values. In fact, he rejected Christianity and aimed to bring back the ancient religious practices of the Romans. Because of his blatant hatred of Christianity, he was given the name “Julian the Apostate”, which means someone who has abandoned his principles and religion.

                                As a child, he grew up in Bithynia. His grandmother raised him, and by the time he was seven years of age the Christian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia became one of his mentors. The Gothic eunuch Mardonius taught and inspired the young Julian, as well.

                                In 342, Julian was sent into exile, along with Gallus. He was forced to enter Marcellum, a place in Cappadocia while he was in exile. It was here that he met George of Cappadocia, who was a Christian bishop. The bishop introduced to him the classical tradition of Christianity. At 18 years old, Julian travelled to Nicomedia and Constantinople after he regained his freedom.

                                As An Emperor

                                In 361, he travelled to Constantinople during the time that he was already proclaimed as the sole emperor. While there, he presided over the Christian burial of Constantius, despite the fact that he rejected Christianity. His performance of this political act showed how he was indeed lawful to the throne. Furthermore, he was believed to have ordered the construction of the Santa Costanza on a location outside of Rome, which was intended as a mausoleum for Constantina and Helena.

                                The emperor was against the manner in which his predecessors ruled the empire. He considered the administration as corrupt and inefficient. Thus, he ordered the dismissal of numerous eunuchs, officials and servants. A Chalcedon tribunal was also set up, and this designed to handle the corruption that was prevalent during the old administration. Executions of high-ranking officials under the rule of Constantius were arranged.

                                Julian aimed to expand the authority of the cities in the empire. There was a reduction in the direct involvement of the Imperial in urban matters. City lands of the imperial government were given back to the cities, and the payment of tribute referred to as the Aurum coronarium, became voluntary. He made several changes to the administration when he was an emperor, which had an impact on the people and the empire’s economy.

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