Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1961 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1961 - History


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Major Event/ Sports /Prizes

    Major Events of 1961

Sports

NBA: Boston Celtics vs. St. Louis Hawks Series: 4-1
NCAA Football: Alabama & Ohio State Records: 11-0-0 & 8-0-1
Heisman Trophy: Ernie Davis, syracuse, HB points: 824
Stanley Cup: Chicago Blackhawks vs. Detroit Red Wings Series: 4-2
US Open Golf: Gene Littler Score: 281 Course: Oakland Hills CC Location: Birmingham, MI
World Series: New York Yankees vs. Cincinnati Reds Series: 4-1

Popular Songs

1. "Wonderland by Night" ... Bert Kaemfert
2. "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" ... The Shirelles
3. "Calcutta" ... Lawrence Welk
4. "Pony Time" ... Chubby Checker
5. "Surrender" ... Elvis Presley
6. "Blue Moon" ... The Marcles
7. "Runaway" ... Del Shannon
8. "Mother-in-Law" ... Ernie K-Doe
9. "Travelin' Man" ... Ricky Nelson
10. "Running Scared" ... Roy Orbison

Popular Movies

1. The Guns of Navarone
2. The Absent-Minded Professor
3. The Parent Trap
4. Swiss Family Robinson
5. Exodus
6. The World of Suzie Wong
7. Alamo
8. Gone With the Wind (reissue)
9. 101 Dalmations
10. Splendor in the Grass

Academy Awards

Best Picture: "West Side Story"
Best Director: Robert Wise & Jerome Robbins ... "West Side Story"
Best Actor: Maximilian Schell ... "Judgement at Nuremberg"
Best Actress: Sophia Loren ... "Two Women"
Supporting Actor:George Chakiris.. “West Side Story”

Supporting Acress: Rita Moreno.. “West Side Story”

Grammy Awards

Record of the Year: "Moon River" ... Henry Mancini
Song of the Year: "Moon River" ... Henry Mancini
Album of the Year: "Judy at Carnegie Hall" ... Judy Garland
Male Vocalist: Jack Jones ... "Lollipops and Roses"
Female Vocalist: Judy Garland ... "Judy at Carnegie Hall"

Nobel Prizes

Chemistry
Melvoin Calvin, U.S.A.,b 1911 University of California Berkely "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants".

Literature
Ivo Andric Yugoslavia, b. 1892: "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"

Peace
HAMMARSKJ…LD, DAG HJALMAR AGNE CARL, Sweden, b. 1905, d. 1961: Secretary General of the United Nations (awarded the Prize posthumously).

Physiology or Medicine
The prize was awarded to:

Georg von BÈkÈsy "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea".Bekesey was born ib Budapest in 1899

Physics
The prize was awarded equally to Robert Hofstadler for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" and Rudofl Ludwig Mossbauer for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name".

Pulitzer Prizes

Public Service:
The Amarillo Globe-Times

Local Reporting, Edition Time:
Sanche de Gramont of the New York Herald Tribune

Local Reporting, No Edition time:
Edgar May of The Buffalo Evening News

National Reporting:
Edward R. Cony of The Wall Street Journal

International Reporting:
Lynn Heinzerling of the Associated Press

Editorial Writing:
William J. Dorvillier of The San Juan Star

Editorial Cartooning:
Carey Orr of the Chicago Tribune

Photography:
Yasushi Nagao of Mainichi, Tokyo

Letters, Music and Drama Awards

Fiction:
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (Lippincott)

Drama:
All the Way Home by Tad Mosel (Obolensky)
History:
Between War and Peace: The Potsdam Conference by Herbert Feis (Princeton Univ. Press)
Biography or Autobiography:
Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War by David Donald (Knopf)
Poetry:
Times Three: Selected Verse From Three Decades by Phyllis McGinley (Viking)
Music:
Symphony No. 7 by Walter Piston (Associated Music Publishers), first performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra on February 10, 1961, and commissioned by the Philadelphia Orchestra Association.

Most Popular Books

Fiction
1."The Agony and the Ecstasy"... Irving Stone. Doubleday
2."Franny and Zooey"...J. D. Salinger. Little, Brown
3."To Kill a Mockin '-bird"... Harper Lee. Lippincott
4."Mila 18" ... Leon Uris. Doubleday
5."The Carpetbaggers"... Harold Robbins. Simon & Schuster
6."Tropic of Cancer" ... Henry Miller. Grove Press
7."Winnie Ille Pu"... translated by Alexander Lenard. Dutton
8."Daughter of Silence"... Morris West. Morrow
9."The Edge of Sadness"...Edwin O'Connor. Little, Brown
10. "The Winter of Our Discontent"...John Steinbeck. Viking Press
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
Nonfiction
1."The New English Bible: The New Testament"... Cambridge
University Press and Oxford University Press
2."The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" ... William Shirer.
Simon & Schuster
3."Better Homes and Gardens Sewing Book"... Meredith Publishing Co.
4."Casserole Cook Book"... Meredith Publishing Co.
5."A Nation of Sheep" ...William Lederer. Norton
6."Better Homes and Gardens Nutrition for Your Family"... Meredith
Publishing Co.
7."The Making of the President, 1960"... Theodore H. White.
Atheneum Press
8."Calories Don't Count"...Dr. Herman Taller. Simon & Schuster
9."Betty Crocker's New Picture Cook Book: New Edition"... McGraw-Hill
10. "Ring of Bright Water"... Gavin Maxwell. Dutton

Most Popular Television Shows

1.Wagon Train (NBC)
2. Bonanza (NBC)
3. Gunsmoke (CBS)
4. Hazel (NBC)
5. Perry Mason (CBS)
6. The Red Skelton (CBS)
7. The Andy Griffith Show (CBS)
8. The Danny Thomas Show (CBS)
9. Dr. Kildare (NBC)
10. Candid Camera (CBS)


Nobel Prize history from the year you were born

Since 1901, Nobel Prizes have honored the world’s best and brightest and showcased the work of brilliant and creative minds, thanks to Swedish businessman Alfred Nobel, who made his fortune with the invention of dynamite.

The Prize in Physiology or Medicine often honors those whose discoveries led to medical breakthroughs, new drug treatments, or a better understanding of the human body that benefit us all.

The Prize in Literature celebrates those skilled in telling stories, creating poetry, and translating the human experience into words. The Prizes in Chemistry and Physics remind most of us how little we understand of genetics, atomic structures, or the universe around us, celebrating the scientists who further knowledge. A later addition to the award roster, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is not an original Prize, but was established by the Central Bank of Sweden in 1968 as a memorial to Alfred Nobel. It applauds those who can unravel the mysteries of markets, trade, and money.

The Peace Prize celebrates, in Nobel’s words, “the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses,” sometimes risking their lives to do so.

So precious are the awards that the medals of German physicists Max von Laue and James Franck, stored away for safekeeping in Copenhagen during World War II, were dissolved in acid to keep them away from approaching Nazi troops. After the war, the gold was reconstituted from the acid and recast into new medals.

But Nobel history has not been entirely noble. In 1939, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, known for his policy of appeasement toward Nazi Germany, was nominated for the Peace Prize. In an act of irony and protest, members of the Swedish Parliament nominated Adolf Hitler. That nomination was withdrawn. Some recipients have ordered oppressive crackdowns on their own people or ignored genocides, either before or after receiving the Prize. The 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was given to Germany’s Fritz Haber, who invented a method of producing ammonia on a large scale, which was helpful in making fertilizer. But the same chemist helped develop the chlorine gas that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I.

Stacker looked at facts and events related to the Nobel Prizes each year from 1931 to 2020, drawing from the Nobel Committee’s recollections and announcements, news stories, and historical accounts.

Take a look, and see what was happening with the Nobel Prizes the year you were born.


Prize winners

Since 1901 the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded 100 times, to 131 laureates: 90 men, 17 women and 24 organizations.

With regard to the Peace Prize, the will of Alfred Nobel stipulated that it was to be awarded to the person "who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Over the course of time the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded in recognition of many different kinds of peace work and concepts of peace.

In the earliest years of the Peace Prize - up to World War I - the prize was often awarded to pioneers of the organized peace movement. In the inter-war years, the focus shifted to active politicians who sought to promote international peace, stability and justice by means of diplomacy and international agreements, but prizes were also awarded for humanitarian work (Nansen, the League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees).

Since World War II, the Peace Prize has principally been awarded to honour efforts in four main areas: arms control and disarmament, peace negotiation, democracy and human rights, and work aimed at creating a better organized and more peaceful world. In the 21st century the Nobel Committee has embraced efforts to limit the harm done by man-made climate change and threats to the environment as relevant to the Peace Prize.


Award process

The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes the main difference is in who can make nominations for each of them. [45]

Play media Play media

Nominations

Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are often academics working in a relevant area. For the Peace Prize, inquiries are sent to governments, members of international courts, professors and rectors, former Peace Prize laureates and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award. [45] [46] The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names. [47] The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize. [48] [49]

Selection

The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions. [50] The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote. [51] A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals. [52] If the Peace Prize is not awarded, the money is split among the scientific prizes. This has happened 19 times so far. [53]

Posthumous nominations

Although posthumous nominations are not permitted, individuals who die in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented. [54] On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M. Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman’s prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously. [4] The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize “was made in good faith”, it would remain unchanged. [55]

Recognition time lag

Nobel’s will provides for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made “during the preceding year”. Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries. [56] However, some of these early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer. [57] To avoid repeating this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time. [58] [59] [60] According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, “the criterion ‘the previous year’ is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident.” [59]

The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel Committee

The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement. [61] [62] The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts. [63] [64] However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events. [65] For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations. [66] Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords. [67]

Although Nobel’s will stated that prizes should be awarded for contributions made “during the preceding year”, awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution. [68] [69] Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died. [70] [71] [72]


1960s: Sports and Games

The 1960s saw professional sports finally attain dominance in the hearts of American sports fans. The overlapping seasons of professional baseball, football, hockey, and basketball offered sports fans year-round entertainment, and television broadcasting increased in sophistication to make sports coverage more exciting. It also helped that the 1960s were filled with dramatic moments and glamorous sports stars.

No one team dominated major league baseball, as seven different teams won the World Series. Perhaps the most astonishing World Series win went to the 1969 New York Mets, who had finished next-to-last in 1968. The "Amazin' Mets," as they were known, provided thrills for every fan who roots for the under-dog. The 1960s were the decade of stars, as players like Roger Maris (1934–1985), Mickey Mantle (1931–1995), Maury Wills (1932–), Sandy Koufax (1935–), Frank Robinson (1935–), Carl Yastrzemski (1939–), and others set records and thrilled fans.

Professional football became the most popular American sport in the 1960s, surpassing baseball in attendance and in television viewership. Men, mostly, across the nation gave up their Sunday afternoons to watch the games, and for most of the decade they could choose between the National Football League (NFL) and the American Football League (AFL). The two leagues played their first championship game—called the Super Bowl—against each other in 1967, with the NFL's Green Bay Packers easily defeating the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. The most dominant team of the decade, the Packers won the next Super Bowl, too, beating the Oakland Raiders, 33-14. But Super Bowl III was a different story: The New York Jets of the upstart AFL proved the league's worth—and silenced AFL naysayers—by beating the Baltimore Colts, 16-7, behind the heroics of quarterback Joe Namath (1943–).

The National Basketball Association (NBA) grew in popularity and size throughout the decade. Beginning the decade with just eight teams, it grew to seventeen teams by the end of the decade and in 1965 drew over five million fans to its games. The Boston Celtics were the era's dominant team, winning nine of ten NBA championships. The Celtics were led by their dominating center, Bill Russell (1934–), who had a great rivalry with fellow big man Wilt Chamberlain (1936–1999), who played for the Philadelphia Warriors, San Francisco Warriors, Philadelphia 76ers, and Los Angeles Lakers. In an era known for the gains made by African Americans, black players came to dominate the game of professional basketball. College basketball also remained very popular, and was dominated in the decade by the UCLA team coached by John Wooden (1910–) and, after 1967, by a seven-foot player named Lew Alcindor (1947–), who later changed his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.

Other sports also drew fan's attention. The single most celebrated athlete of the decade was boxer Cassius Clay, who took the name Muhammad Ali (1942–) after winning the heavyweight crown in 1964. Ali dominated the heavyweight class for years, and he entertained the world with his witty boasts, such as "I float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." The Olympics continued to raise its profile as a sporting event, thanks to substantial television coverage and to growing corporate sponsorship of the games. Inspired by Americans' growing love of sports, in 1961 ABC-TV introduced a new style of sports show called Wide World of Sports which, in its famous opening lines, promised that it was "spanning the world to give you the constant variety of sports—the thrill of victory and the agony of defeat, the human drama of athletic competition."

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HistoryLink.org

This is a list of Nobel Prize winners associated with the state of Washington, through 2016:

2016: David J. Thouless (b. 1934) -- Nobel Prize in Physics for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter. Born in United Kingdom, received PhD at Cornell University in 1958. Professor emeritus at the University of Washington at time of award.

2012: David J. Wineland (b. 1944) -- Nobel Prize in Physics for research on experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. Postdoctoral research associate at University of Washington with Hans Dehmelt ca. 1972.

2004: Linda B. Buck (b. 1947) -- Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, with Richard Axel, for determining the molecular mechanism of the sense of smell. Born in Seattle, graduate of University of Washington. Currently (2012) with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle.

2004: Irwin Rose (1926-2015) -- Nobel Prize in Chemistry (along with Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko) for his research in immune defense and proteins. He spent his first undergraduate year at Washington State University and received the WSU Regents' Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2005

2001: Leland H. Hartwell (b. 1939) -- Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Tim Hunt and Paul Nurse, for research on normal and abnormal cell growth. President and director emeritus, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, and professor of genome sciences, University of Washington.

1994: Martin Rodbell (1925-1998) -- Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Alfred G. Gilman, for discovery that cellular communications involved guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Received Ph.D. in biochemistry at University of Washington, 1954

1993: Douglass North (1920-2015) -- Nobel Prize in Economics, with Robert W. Fogel, for development of "cliometrics," a new method of studying economic history using modern statistical techniques. Professor of economics, University of Washington from 1971 to 1983.

1992: Edwin Krebs (1918-2009) -- Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Edmond H. Fischer. Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry at University of Washington at time of death

1992:
Edmond H. Fischer (b. 1920) -- Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Edwin G. Krebs, for research on the biological and chemical reaction that controls the activities of cell proteins. Teacher and professor at University of Washington since 1953 currently Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry.

1990: William F. Sharpe (b. 1934) -- Nobel Prize in Economics, with Harry M. Markowitz and Merton H. Miller, for development of the capital asset pricing model, a system to explain the relationship between securities prices, risks, and returns. Teacher and professor at University of Washington, 1961-1968.

1990: E. Donnall Thomas (1920-2012) -- Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Joseph E. Murray for research on bone marrow transplantation, much of which was conducted at the Seattle-based Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute.

1989: Hans G. Dehmelt (1922-2017) -- Nobel Prize in Physics, with Wolfgang Paul and Norman F. Ramsey, for experiments determining the size of electrons. Teacher, then professor, at University of Washington, beginning in 1955.


"One Hundred Years of Solitude" is published

On May 5, 1967, Gabriel Garcia Márquez&aposs Cien años de soledad, or One Hundred Years of Solitude, is first published. The book, often referred to as a defining work of Latin American literature, made Márquez a prime candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, which he was awarded in 1982.

One Hundred Years of Solitude follows seven generations of the Buend໚ family, fictional founders of the fictional town of Macondo in Márquez&aposs native Colombia. The town and the family remain isolated from the outside world for much of the novel, but new technologies, political upheavals, and foreign businesses (the novel&aposs American Fruit Company is a clear reference to the real-life United Fruit Company) encroach upon them and shape the narrative.

Some events in the novel, such as the Thousand Days&apos War, really happened, while others, such as the massacre of striking workers, were based on true moments in Colombian history. One of the novel&aposs defining features, however, is Marquez&aposs magical realism. Bizarre things happen frequently and are treated by the author and his characters as if they are completely ordinary. One of the Buend໚s goes mad and spends his final years tied to a tree by his family, another sires 17 illegitimate sons with inexplicably permanent Ash Wednesday crosses on their foreheads, and another ascends into the sky while folding laundry. Marquez&aposs tendency to treat these events as mundane is a hallmark of magical realism, a fantastical style of storytelling that was popular with the major Latin American authors of his generation.

The novel was an immediate and enduring success. Many critics saw the emergence of a distinctively Latin American style in Marquez&aposs fatalism and cyclical view of history. His work drew comparisons to that of William Faulkner and Vladimir Nabokov, while Chilean poet Pablo Neruda called it "the greatest revelation in the Spanish language since Don Quijote." As he accepted his Nobel Prize, Marquez eloquently explained what magical realism meant to him: "I dare to think that it is this outsized reality, and not just its literary expression, that has deserved the attention of the Swedish Academy of Letters," he said. "A reality not of paper, but one that lives within us . full of sorrow and beauty, of which this roving and nostalgic Colombian is but one cipher more." 


Research Staff Laureates and Contributors

Luis Walter Alvarez

Luis Walter Alvarez, a RAND consultant from 1945 to 1951, and again from 1954 to 1966, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968 for work that included the discovery of many resonance particles (subatomic particles having extremely short lifetimes and occurring only in high-energy nuclear collisions).

He studied physics at the University of Chicago and earned a Ph.D. in 1936. He joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1936, becoming physics professor in 1945 and professor emeritus in 1978.

In 1938, Alvarez discovered that some radioactive elements decay by orbital-electron capture. That is, an orbital electron merges with its nucleus, producing an element with an atomic number smaller by one. In 1939, he and Felix Bloch made the first measurement of the magnetic moment of the neutron, a characteristic of the strength and direction of its magnetic field.

Alvarez worked on microwave radar research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (1940 to 1943), and participated in the development of the atomic bomb at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in New Mexico in 1944 and 1945. He suggested the technique for detonating the implosion type of atomic bomb. He also participated in the development of microwave beacons, linear radar antennas, the ground-controlled landing approach system, and a method for aerial bombing using radar to locate targets.

After World War II, Alvarez helped construct the first proton linear accelerator and developed the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber in which subatomic particles and their reactions are detected.

Kenneth Joseph Arrow

Kenneth Joseph Arrow was a RAND consultant from 1948 until he died in 2017. He was co-winner with Sir John R. Hicks of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1972.

Arrow is known for his contributions to welfare economics and to general economic equilibrium theory. Perhaps his most startling thesis (built on elementary mathematics) was the &ldquoimpossibility theorem&rdquo or &ldquoArrow's theorem.&rdquo This holds that, under certain conditions of rationality and equality, it is impossible to guarantee that a ranking of societal preferences will correspond to rankings of individual preferences when more than two individuals and alternative choices are involved.

After receiving his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1951, he taught at the University of Chicago (1948 to 1949), at Stanford University (1949 to 1968), and at Harvard University (1968 to 1979). He returned to Stanford in 1979.

Robert J. Aumann

Robert J. Aumann, a RAND consultant from 1962 to 1974, shares the 2005 Nobel Prize in Economics with Thomas Schelling for having enhanced understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.

He received his Ph.D. in mathematics in 1955 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After finishing his doctorate, Aumann joined Princeton University. In 1956, he immigrated to Israel and became an instructor at the Institute of Mathematics of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Promoted to professor in 1968, he remains a member of the department.

Aumann has been associated as an &ldquooutside teacher&rdquo with the Departments of Statistics and Mathematics of Tel-Aviv University. He has been a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since 1985, a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities since 1989, and a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1974.

He received the Israel Prize in Economics in 1994 and the Harvey Prize in Science and Technology (awarded by the Israel Institute of Technology) in 1983. He was awarded honorary doctorates by the University of Bonn in 1988, by the Université Catholique de Louvain in 1989, and by the University of Chicago in 1992. He was elected fellow of the Econometric Society in 1966, and served for a number of years on its Council and its Executive Committee. Aumann was the president of the Israel Mathematical Union and is an honorary member of the American Economic Association.

Gary Stanley Becker

Gary Stanley Becker, a RAND consultant in 1957 and again from 1968 to 1980, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1992. He applied the methods of economics to aspects of human behavior previously considered the exclusive domain of sociology, criminology, anthropology, and demography.

Becker's central premise was that rational economic choices, based on self-interest, govern most aspects of human behavior&mdashnot just the purchasing and investment decisions traditionally thought to influence economic behavior.

He was educated at Princeton University and the University of Chicago, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1955. He taught economics at the University of Chicago until 1957, when he began teaching at Columbia University. In 1970, he returned to the University of Chicago as a professor of economics. In 1983, he also became a professor of sociology.

Ronald Harry Coase

Ronald Harry Coase, affiliated with RAND in the 1960s and '70s, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1991.

Coase conducted pioneering work on the ways in which transaction costs and property rights affect business and society. In his most famous paper, The Problem of Social Cost (1960), he developed what later became known as the Coase theorem.

While at RAND, he wrote one of his key publications, Problems of Radio Frequency Allocation.

Coase attended the London School of Economics, where he received a bachelor of commerce degree in 1932 and a Ph.D. in economics in 1951. He was employed at various universities, including the London School of Economics (1935 to 1951), the University of Buffalo (1951 to 1958), the University of Virginia (1958 to 1964), and the University of Chicago (beginning in 1964), where he became professor of economics in the law school, taught at the Graduate School of Business, and was editor of the Journal of Law and Economics from 1964 to 1982.

Gerard Debreu

Gerard Debreu, affiliated with RAND during the early 1950s, won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Economics for his fundamental contribution to the theory of general equilibrium.

In 1950, Debreu joined the Cowles Commission for Research in Economics (now the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics) at the University of Chicago, moving with the commission to Yale University in 1955. He received his doctorate in economics from the University of Paris in 1956. He later became a professor of economics (1962) and mathematics (1975) at the University of California at Berkeley, where he taught until 1991.

Debreu's classic monograph, Theory of Value: An Axiomatic Analysis of Economic Equilibrium, was published in 1959. In it, Debreu provided the mathematical underpinnings for the phenomenon of equilibrium in supply and demand that was first articulated as the &ldquoinvisible hand&rdquo by Adam Smith in 1776. Debreu also developed methods by which to analyze the factors that influence equilibrium.

Peter A. Diamond

Peter A. Diamond was a graduate student intern at RAND while working on his Ph.D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 2010, he won the Nobel Prize in Economics along with Dale T. Mortensen and Christopher A. Pissarides for their analysis of markets with search frictions. Diamond is best known for his work on U.S. Social Security policy. He is currently a professor at MIT.

Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann, a RAND consultant from 1956 to 1989 and from 1991 to 1994, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969 for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

Gell-Mann's &ldquoeightfold way&rdquo theory brought order to the chaos created by the discovery of some 100 particles in the atom's nucleus. He found that all of those particles, including the neutron and proton, are composed of fundamental building blocks that he named &ldquoquarks.&rdquo The quarks are permanently confined by forces coming from the exchange of &ldquogluons.&rdquo He and others later constructed the quantum field theory of quarks and gluons, called &ldquoquantum chromodynamics,&rdquo which seems to account for all the nuclear particles and their strong interactions.

Gell-Mann is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology, where he taught from 1955 until 1993. He was a director of the J.D. and C.T. MacArthur Foundation from 1979 to 2002. He is currently a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the American Physical Society, a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He serves on the board of the Wildlife Conservation Society. He is a former Citizen Regent of the Smithsonian (1974 to 1988) and a former member of the President's Science Advisory Committee (1969 to 1972). He also served on the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology from 1994 to 2001. Gell-Mann is a distinguished fellow of the Santa Fe Institute.

James Heckman

James Heckman was a RAND consultant in 1974 and again from 1975 to 1976. He and Daniel L. McFadden shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2000. Heckman won the award for his pioneering work in econometrics and microeconomics. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University in 1971. He is most famous for introducing the concept of &ldquoselection bias&rdquo into modern econometrics.

Leonid “Leo” Hurwicz

Leonid &ldquoLeo&rdquo Hurwicz, a RAND consultant through the University of Chicago during the late 1940s and '50s, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2007 for laying the foundation for mechanism design theory. He shares the award with Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson.

Mechanism design, described as &ldquothe art of producing institutions that align individual incentives with overall social goals,&rdquo is fundamental to solving political and economic dilemmas that range from climate change to timber auctions to organ-donor matching. Hurwicz proposed that desired outcomes can be achieved only if people are provided with the right kind of incentives.

Hurwicz earned a law degree from Warsaw University, then studied at the London School of Economics. He was a research assistant to the economist Paul Samuelson, who won the Nobel Prize for economics in 1970, and to Oskar Lange at the University of Chicago. He never earned an economics degree. In 1951, he became a professor of economics and mathematics at the University of Minnesota, then Regents' Professor of Economics in 1969, and the Curtis L. Carlson Professor of Economics in 1989.

Hurwicz received the National Medal of Science in 1990 in behavioral and social science for his &ldquopioneering work on the theory of modern decentralized allocation mechanisms.&rdquo

Henry Alfred Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger, a RAND consultant from 1961 to 1969, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973. He was the 56th Secretary of State of the United States from 1973 to 1977, continuing to hold the position of Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs that he first assumed in 1969 until 1975. After leaving government service, he founded Kissinger Associates, an international consulting firm, of which he is chairman.

He has served as chairman of the National Bipartisan Commission on Central America (1983 to 1984) and a consultant to the Department of State (1965 to 1968), the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (1961 to 1968), the National Security Council (1961 to 1962), the Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1959 to 1960), the Operations Coordinating Board (1955), Director of the Psychological Strategy Board (1952), and the Operations Research Office (1951).

Tjalling Charles Koopmans

Tjalling Charles Koopmans, a RAND consultant in 1948 and again from 1952 to 1966, shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1975 with Leonid Kantorovich of the Soviet Union. The two men independently developed activity analysis, a rational method for allocating resources to attain a given economic objective at the lowest cost.

Koopmans was educated in mathematics and physics at the universities of Utrecht and Leiden, obtaining his Ph.D. in economics at Leiden in 1936. In 1940, he went to the United States, where he worked for the British Merchant Shipping Mission during World War II. He was concerned with the selection of shipping routes that would minimize the total cost of transporting required quantities of goods, available at various locations in America, to specified destinations in England.

In 1944, Koopmans joined the Cowles Commission for Research in Economics at the University of Chicago, where he extended his technique to a wide variety of economic problems. When the commission was relocated to Yale University in 1955, Koopmans moved with it, becoming professor of economics. He wrote a widely read book on the methodology of economic analysis, Three Essays on the State of Economic Science (1957).

Robert Lempert

Robert Lempert, a senior scientist at RAND, is an expert in science and technology policy, with a special focus on climate change, energy, and the environment. He was a contributor to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 along with Vice President Al Gore.

An internationally-known scholar in the field of decisionmaking under conditions of deep uncertainty, Lempert is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a member of the National Academy of Science's Climate Research Committee, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has led studies on climate change policy, the environment, energy, national security strategies, and science and technology investment strategies for clients that include the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and several multinational firms.

Lempert is co-founder and president of the firm Evolving Logic, which builds decision support computer systems for government and business clients.

Willard Frank Libby

Willard Frank Libby, a RAND consultant in from 1953 to 1954 and again from 1969 to 1980, was a chemist whose technique of carbon-14 (or radiocarbon) dating provided an extremely valuable tool for archaeologists, anthropologists, and earth scientists. He was honored with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960.

Libby received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, where he was a member of the faculty from 1933 to 1945. He was with the Institute for Nuclear Studies at the University of Chicago (1945 to 1959) and was professor of chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles, until his death in 1980.

While associated with the Manhattan Project (1941 to 1945), Libby helped develop a method for separating uranium isotopes, an essential step in the creation of the atomic bomb. In 1946, he showed that tritium, the heaviest isotope of hydrogen, was produced by cosmic radiation. The following year, he and his students developed the carbon-14 dating technique. This technique is used to date material derived from former living organisms as old as 50,000 years. It measures small amounts of radioactivity from the carbon-14 in organic or carbon-containing materials and can identify older objects as those having less radioactivity. Libby also served on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (1955 to 1959) and wrote Radiocarbon Dating.

Harry M. Markowitz

Harry M. Markowitz was a RAND researcher from 1951 to 1957 and 1960 to 1962, and a consultant from 1962 to 1967. He was the co-winner (with Merton H. Miller and William F. Sharpe) of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Economics for theories on evaluating stock-market risk and reward and on valuing corporate stocks and bonds.

This involved Markowitz's &ldquoportfolio theory,&rdquo which sought to prove that a diversified or &ldquooptimal&rdquo portfolio&mdashone that mixes assets to maximize return and minimize risk&mdashcould be practical. His techniques for measuring the risk associated with various assets and his methods for mixing assets became routine investment procedures. He also developed a computer language called SIMSCRIPT, used to write economic-analysis programs.

Markowitz studied at the University of Chicago, earning a Ph.B. in 1947, a master's degree in 1950, and a Ph.D. in 1954. As a RAND researcher, he met Sharpe and George Dantzig. Markowitz cited Dantzig's work on optimization techniques as an influence. After RAND, he held various positions with Consolidated Analysis Centers, Inc. (1963 to 1968), the University of California, Los Angeles (1968 to 1969), Arbitrage Management Company (1969 to 1972), and IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center (1974 to 1983) before becoming a professor of finance at Baruch College of the City University of New York. In 1994, he became a research professor of economics at the University of California, San Diego.

Maria Goeppert Mayer

Maria Goeppert Mayer, a consultant at RAND from 1953 to 1970, shared one-half of the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physics with J. Hans D. Jensen of West Germany for their proposal of the shell nuclear model. (The other half of the prize was awarded to Eugene P. Wigner of the United States for unrelated work.)

Mayer studied physics at the University of Göttingen, earning her Ph.D. in 1930. Over the next nine years, she was associated with Johns Hopkins as a volunteer associate. During that time, she collaborated with Karl Herzfeld and her husband, chemical physicist Joseph E. Mayer, in the study of organic molecules. In 1939, Mayer and her husband received appointments in chemistry at Columbia University, where she worked on the separation of uranium isotopes for the atomic bomb project.

Although the Mayers remained at Columbia throughout World War II, Mayer also lectured at Sarah Lawrence College from 1942 to 1945. After the war, Mayer's interests centered increasingly on nuclear physics. In 1945, she became a volunteer professor of physics in the Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies at the University of Chicago. She received a regular appointment as full professor in 1959.

From 1948 to 1949, Mayer published several papers on the stability and configuration of protons and neutrons that constitute the atomic nucleus. She developed a theory that the nucleus consists of several shells, or orbital levels, and that the distribution of protons and neutrons among these shells produces the characteristic degree of stability of each species of nucleus. A similar theory was developed at the same time in Germany by J. Hans D. Jensen, with whom she subsequently collaborated on Elementary Theory of Nuclear Shell Structure (1955). The work established her as a leading authority in the field. Also noted for her work in quantum electrodynamics and spectroscopy, Mayer accepted an appointment at the University of California at San Diego in 1960, as did her husband.

John Forbes Nash, Jr.

Photo by Fred Prouser/Reuters

John Forbes Nash, Jr., a consultant at RAND from 1950 to 1954, was awarded the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economics for his landmark work, first begun in the 1950s, on the mathematics of game theory. He shared the Nobel Prize with the Hungarian-American economist John C. Harsanyi and German mathematician Reinhard Selten.

In 1948, Nash received bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics from the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Two years later, at age 22, he completed his doctorate at Princeton University, publishing his influential thesis &ldquoNon-cooperative Games&rdquo in the journal Annals of Mathematics. He joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951 but resigned in the late '50s after bouts of mental illness. He then began an informal association with Princeton.

Edmund S. Phelps

Photo by Brendan McDermid/Reuters

Edmund S. Phelps, whose first job was a year at the RAND Corporation (1959 to 1960), was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Economics for extending the understanding of tradeoffs between economic objectives, such as inflation and employment.

Recognized for his work on economic growth at Yale's Cowles Foundation in the 1960s, Phelps is best known for introducing an expectations-based microeconomics into the theory of employment determination and price-wage dynamics. Phelps's most seminal work is his rudimentary theory of a natural rate of unemployment&mdashits existence, how its size is determined, and how market forces may drive unemployment from it.

Phelps received his B.A. at Amherst College in 1955 and his Ph.D. at Yale University in 1959. He started his academic career at Yale, then moved to University of Pennsylvania and, in 1971, to Columbia University where he has been McVickar Professor of Political Economy since 1982. He is also the director of Columbia's Center on Capitalism and Society.

Paul Anthony Samuelson

Paul Anthony Samuelson, a RAND consultant from 1948 to 1990 and member of the Governor's Board of what is now the Pardee RAND Graduate School, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1970 for his fundamental contributions to nearly all branches of economic theory.

Samuelson earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago in 1935 and a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1941. He became a professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1940. He also served as an economic adviser to the U.S. government.

Samuelson contributed to many areas of economic theory through powerful mathematical techniques that he employed essentially as puzzle-solving devices. His Foundations of Economic Analysis (1947) provides the basic theme of his work, with the universal nature of consumer behavior seen as the key to economic theory. Samuelson studied the dynamics and stability of economic systems, the incorporation of the theory of international trade into that of general economic equilibrium, the analysis of public goods, capital theory, welfare economics, and public expenditure. Of particular influence has been his mathematical formulation of the interaction of multiplier and accelerator effects and, in consumption analysis, his development of the theory of revealed preference.

Thomas Schelling

Thomas Schelling, recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Economics, had a nearly 50-year affiliation with RAND, including one year as a staff economist in the late 1950s. He shared the prize with another longtime RAND consultant, mathematician Robert J. Aumann. The Nobel committee said that the two researchers, who worked independently, had &ldquoenhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.&rdquo

Schelling was best known as the author of The Strategy of Conflict (1960), which applied strategic thinking to practical problems in politics and business. In its preface, he wrote, &ldquoRAND is more than a collection of people it is a social organism characterized by intellect, imagination, and good humor. RAND is not responsible for the shapes my ideas have taken &hellip but I hope it will &hellip take satisfaction from its responsibility for some of the ideas taking any shape at all.&rdquo

Schelling also wrote influential articles, including a 1960 piece about accidental war that examined fictional accounts of nuclear catastrophe. Film director Stanley Kubrick found Schelling's description of one story, &ldquoRed Alert&rdquo by Peter George, so intriguing that he turned it into Dr. Strangelove, the classic 1964 black comedy about the Cold War, and consulted with Schelling during its filming.

Schelling donated his papers to the Pardee RAND Graduate School. He was a longtime supporter of the school, serving on its academic advisory board and as a member of its Board of Governors from the school's founding, in 1998, to 2003. Over the years, he contributed in another way&mdashby advising students on their dissertations.

Theodore William Schultz

Theodore William Schultz, a RAND consultant from 1956 to 1972, shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Economics with Sir Arthur Lewis for his influential studies of the role of &ldquohuman capital&rdquo&mdasheducation, talent, energy, and will&mdashin economic development.

Schultz graduated from South Dakota State College in 1927 and earned his Ph.D. in 1930 at the University of Wisconsin, where he was influenced by John R. Commons and other reform-minded thinkers. He taught at Iowa State College (1930 to 1943) and at the University of Chicago (1943 to 1972), where he was head of the economics department from 1946 to 1961.

In Transforming Traditional Agriculture (1964), Schultz challenged the prevailing view that farmers in developing countries were irrational in their unwillingness to innovate. He argued that, to the contrary, the farmers were making rational responses to high taxes and artificially low crop prices set by their governments. Schultz also noted that governments in developing countries lacked the agricultural extension services critical for training farmers in new methods. He viewed agricultural development as a precondition for industrialization.

Among his publications were Agriculture in an Unstable Economy (1945), The Economic Value of Education (1963), Economic Growth and Agriculture (1968), Investment in Human Capital (1971), and Investing in People: The Economics of Population Quality (1981).

Lloyd S. Shapley

Lloyd S. Shapley, a research mathematician at RAND from 1948 to 1950 and from 1954 to 1981, was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics jointly with Alvin E. Roth. Working independently, they were honored for their research concerning &ldquothe theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design.&rdquo Roth's work involved adapting and applying the theoretical foundations laid by Shapley years earlier.

Shapley used cooperative game theory to study and compare different matching methods. A key issue is to ensure that a matching is stable in the sense that two agents cannot be found who would prefer each other over their current counterparts. He and his colleagues derived an algorithm to ensure a stable matching. Shapley was able to show how the specific design of a method may systematically benefit one or the other side of the market. The algorithm would help match, for instance, organ donors with patients needing transplants, people seeking a marriage partner, or students seeking the right college to attend.

Shapley was a student at Harvard University when he was drafted into the military in 1943. While serving in the Army Air Forces in China, he received the Bronze Star for breaking the Soviet weather code. After the war, he returned to Harvard, earning a bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1948, then working at RAND until 1950. He left to attend Princeton University and completed his doctorate in 1953. The following year, he embarked on what would be a 27-year career as a research mathematician at RAND. He also taught &ldquoGame Theory and Applications&rdquo at what is now the Pardee RAND Graduate School. He left in 1981 to join the faculty of UCLA.

When Shapley died in 2016, Michael D. Rich, president and CEO of RAND, said, &ldquoLloyd Shapley, who is credited with naming the book and film A Beautiful Mind, indeed possessed one of his own. His contributions to game theory have and will continue to impact the field of economics for years to come.&rdquo

William Forsyth Sharpe

William Forsyth Sharpe was a researcher at RAND from 1957 to 1961 and again in 1965, as well as a consultant from 1963 to 1964 and again from 1965 to 1971. He shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1990 with Harry M. Markowitz and Merton H. Miller. Their early work established financial economics as a separate field of study.

Sharpe received the Nobel Prize for his &ldquocapital asset pricing model,&rdquo which explains how securities prices reflect potential risks and returns. His theory showed that the market pricing of risky assets enabled them to fit into an investor's portfolio because they could be combined with less risky investments. His theories led to the concept of &ldquobeta,&rdquo a measurement of portfolio risk. Investment analysts frequently use a beta coefficient to compare the risk of one stock against the risk of the broader stock market.

Sharpe received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1961. He was influenced by the theories of Markowitz, who he met while working at RAND. Later, Sharpe taught economics at the University of Washington from 1961 to 1968 and at Stanford University from 1970 until he retired from teaching to head his own investment consulting firm.

Herbert Alexander Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon was a RAND consultant from 1951 to 1976. He was known for his contributions to a number of fields, including psychology, mathematics, statistics, and operations research, all of which he synthesized in a key theory that earned him the 1978 Nobel Prize in Economics.

Simon earned his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago in 1943. After holding various posts in political science, he became a professor of administration and psychology at Carnegie Mellon University in 1949, later becoming the Richard King Mellon University Professor of Computer Science and Psychology.

Simon is best known for his work on the corporate decisionmaking theory known as &ldquobehaviorism.&rdquo In his influential book Administrative Behavior (1947), Simon sought to replace the highly simplified classical approach to economic modeling&mdashbased on a concept of the single decisionmaking, profit-maximizing entrepreneur&mdashwith an approach that recognized multiple factors that contribute to decisionmaking. According to Simon, this theoretical framework provides a more realistic understanding of a world in which decisionmaking can affect prices and outputs.

Vernon L. Smith

Photo by Hyungwon Kang/Reuters

Vernon L. Smith, a RAND consultant in 1959, was the co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002 for his use of laboratory experiments in economic analysis, which laid the foundation for the field of experimental economics. He shared the award with Israeli-born psychologist Daniel Kahneman.

Smith studied electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology (B.S., 1949), then switched to economics at the University of Kansas (M.A., 1951) and Harvard (Ph.D., 1955). He taught and conducted research at Purdue University (1955 to 1967), Brown University (1967 to 1968), the University of Massachusetts (1968 to 1975), Caltech (1973 to 1975), and the University of Arizona (1975 to 2001), where he was Regents' Professor of Economics from 1988. In 2001, he was named professor of economics and law at George Mason University.

Much of Smith's commercial work was related to the deregulation of energy in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. He served on the editorial boards of several publications and wrote extensively on subjects ranging from capital theory and finance to natural resource economics and experimental economics.

Robert Merton Solow

Robert Merton Solow, a consultant at RAND from 1951 to 1961 and again from 1962 to 2002, was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in Economics for his important contributions to theories of economic growth.

Solow received his B.A. (1947), M.A. (1949), and Ph.D. (1951) from Harvard University. He began teaching economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1949 and became a full professor there in 1958. He also served on the Council of Economic Advisers in 1961 and 1962 and was a consultant to that body from 1962 to 1968.

In the 1950s, Solow developed a mathematical model illustrating how various factors can contribute to sustained national economic growth. Contrary to traditional economic thinking, he showed that advances in the rate of technological progress do more to boost economic growth than do capital accumulation and labor increases. A Keynesian economist, Solow has been a witty critic of interventionists (e.g., John Kenneth Galbraith) and free marketers (e.g., Milton Friedman).

James Tobin

James Tobin, a RAND consultant from 1964 to 1965, won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1981 for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production, and prices.

After earning degrees from Harvard University (B.A., 1939 Ph.D., 1947), Tobin spent 1941 and 1942 as an economist with the Office of Price Administration in Washington, D.C. During World War II, he served in the Naval Reserve, rising to second in command of the destroyer USS Kearney. In 1950, he joined the faculty of Yale University, where he became the Sterling Professor of Economics in 1957. In addition to teaching, he served as director of the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics from 1955 to 1961 and again from 1964 to 1965.

William Spencer Vickrey

Photo by Mike Segar/Reuters

William Spencer Vickrey, a consultant at RAND in 1967 and 1968, brought innovative analysis to the problems of incomplete, or asymmetrical, information. He shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Economics with British economist James A. Mirrlees.

Vickrey was educated at Yale University (B.S., 1935) and Columbia University (M.A., 1937 Ph.D., 1947), where he taught throughout his career. A Quaker, he was a conscientious objector during World War II and spent those years performing public service and developing an inheritance tax for Puerto Rico.

Vickrey had a keen interest in human welfare, often choosing projects with practical applications. His studies of traffic congestion concluded that pricing on commuter trains and toll roads should vary according to usage, with higher fees levied during peak-use periods. This congestion pricing was later adopted by electric and telephone utilities and airlines. In his doctoral thesis, published as &ldquoAgenda for Progressive Taxation&rdquo (1947), he advocated an &ldquooptimal income tax&rdquo that would be based on long-term earnings rather than on yearly income.

Oliver Williamson

Oliver Williamson, a consultant to RAND from 1964 to 1966, shared the Nobel Prize in Economics with Elinor Ostrom in 2009. Williamson was awarded the prize for his &ldquoanalysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm.&rdquo

Williamson received an B.Sc. in management from the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1955, an M.B.A. from Stanford University in 1960, and a Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University in 1963. From 1965 to 1983, he was a professor at the University of Pennsylvania. He has held professorships in business administration, economics, and law at the University of California, Berkeley since 1988 and is currently the Edgar F. Kaiser Professor Emeritus at the Haas School of Business.


Oslo Bound

Celebrating with friends, December 1963.

While letters congratulating Linus Pauling for winning the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize continued to pour into his office early in December 1963, the debate in the press over whether Pauling deserved the Nobel had begun to cool down. Meanwhile, closer to home in southern California, friends and colleagues of Pauling and his wife Ava Helen honored the pair for their activism at several events.

On December 1st, eight activist groups, including Women Strike for Peace, the American Friends Service Committee, SANE, and the Youth Action Committee, held a public reception for the Paulings at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Los Angeles. The Paulings also opened their home to celebrate with friends and former students. The celebrants made banners to honor the Paulings, one reading, “We knew you when you only had one.” Another took on a more mathematical form: “LP plus AHP equals PAX plus 2 Nobels.”

While the Pauling’s attended celebrations in their honor, they were obliged to refuse other offers as they prepared for their trip. A Caltech student requested that Pauling give a farewell speech before leaving for Scandinavia. Turning down the request, Pauling would tell the Associated Press a few days later that he was not giving any speeches before he accepted his Nobel Prize so as not to “be tempted to let something drop beforehand.”

Flyer for the Biology Department coffee hour honoring Pauling’s receipt of the Nobel Peace Prize. December 3, 1963.

It is, of course, entirely possible that something else was in play with respect to Pauling’s refusal to speak at Caltech. Much has been made of Caltech’s official non-response to Pauling’s Nobel Peace award. Indeed, the only recognition that occurred at all on the Pasadena campus was a small coffee hour hosted by the Biology Department. The fact that his own department, to say nothing of the larger institution, chose to ignore this major decoration was deeply hurtful to Pauling. By December Pauling had already announced his departure from Caltech, his academic home of some forty-one years. But the cold shoulder that he received from all but the Biology Department was suggestive of tensions that had been mounting for some time and proved a fitting, if bitter, capstone to this unhappy phase of his relationship with the Institute.

Three Linus Paulings. From left, grandson Linus Fowler Pauling, Linus Pauling and Linus Pauling Jr. 1963.

For their part, mainstream journalists had finally begun to take a more amicable and celebratory approach to their portrayals of Pauling than had generally been the case since the announcement of his Nobel win in October. Articles sought a more personal reflection of Pauling while not completely ignoring the earlier controversy.

Of particular note, as the Paulings flew across the Atlantic on December 7th, the Honolulu Star-Bulletin published an interview with their eldest son, Linus Pauling Jr., in which he reflected on his father’s activism. When asked to gauge Pauling’s talents, Pauling Jr. downplayed his father’s peace efforts in relation to his work as a scientist. “In terms of his ability to marshal facts and to organize and reorganize them toward a goal,” Pauling Jr. stated, “his strivings for peace are comparatively simple, whereas this ability applied to science demonstrates an astoundingly high degree of creative imagination. Essentially, his work in peace is a public relations job – to get the facts across to the public in a meaningful way.”

When asked what inspired his father to engage in peace work, Pauling Jr. said that “innately, he has always been a humanitarian.” His aversion to hunting and his resistance to Japanese internment during World War II were submitted as past evidence of these humanist proclivities.

Digging a little deeper, Pauling Jr. pointed to his father’s experience with Bright’s disease in the early 1940s as a turning point in taking on social issues. At the beginning of the disease, which manifested in bloating and impaired kidney functioning, the elder Pauling “was pretty close to dying.” During his recovery he was forced to rest and spent time weaving blankets. Pauling Jr. thought that his father’s time of rest “forced him to contemplate on the value of life on the wrongs of killing and harming that was going on around the world.”

Ava Helen Pauling also was a major influence on her husband according to Pauling Jr. Of particular importance was her work with Union Now during the early war years – an activist platform that called for world government as a tool for mediating international issues between nations.

Pauling Jr. inevitably addressed some of the controversy surrounding his father’s alleged communist ties, saying that he had “never heard him praise communism, although, on occasion, he has criticized some aspects of capitalism, such as unequal opportunities. Today,” he continued, “that’s known as civil rights.”

Conducting interviews in the living room of the Pasadena home, 1963. James McClanahan, photographer.

The following day, an Associated Press article that centered on Pauling’s life and his “book-and-paper strewn den,” came out in papers across the country. With the Nobel ceremonies only two days away, the headlines that ran with the article insinuated something big, with variations of “Pauling Hints at Surprises in Oslo Speech,” “Linus Pauling Promises Speech Shocker,” or “Pauling Predicts Shock.” The actual feature article, written by Ralph Dighton, was less sensational.

A Peanuts cartoon strip signed by Charles Schultz on display at the Pauling’s home helped Dighton to characterize his subject. The strip showed the animated character Linus stacking blocks in a “gravity-defying stairstep fashion” with the tagline, “Linus, you can’t do that!” Pauling’s own reaction after reading it, Dighton noted, was a loud laugh. For Dighton, the lesson of the cartoon was that “the world has been telling Pauling [you can’t do] that all his life, and he keeps doing what for many others would be impossible.”

In his piece, Dighton also spoke to Pauling’s decision to leave Caltech in favor of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions. Pauling avoided any discussion of problems at Caltech and instead explained that receiving the Nobel Peace Prize was an opportunity and his decision to leave was a direct consequence of his prize. At the Center, Pauling would have more freedom to focus on his peace work and international affairs while also continuing to delve into the molecular basis of disease.

While the article avoided adding to the controversy surrounding Pauling, it still discussed past instances to remind readers that Pauling was never far from trouble. The list was familiar to those who had followed Pauling’s career: the 1952 denial of Pauling’s passport due to suspected communist tendencies his1958 petition against nuclear testing, signed by over 11,000 scientists from 49 different countries the consequent 1960 “joust” with the Senate Internal Security subcommittee his picketing of the Kennedy White House just before attending dinner inside. All helped to exemplify how Pauling had “made a public scourge of himself.”

Arrived in Oslo. From left, an SAS official, Ava Helen and Linus Pauling, Linda Pauling Kamb and Barclay Kamb, Lucy Pauling, Crellin Pauling and Linus Pauling Jr. December 1963.

As Pauling set his sights on Europe and the spotlight of international attention, he left behind a busy office. His assistants Helen Gilrane and Katherine Cassady, who had typed up numerous thank you letters and helped to coordinate Pauling’s increasingly busy life over the previous two months, continued to assist Pauling from a distance. Both kept on answering Pauling’s unceasing correspondence while also working out the details of his still-unfolding trip. For her part, Gilrane responded to Bertrand Russell among many others, telling him that Pauling would be unable to respond right away. Communications of high importance were forwarded to Pauling in Norway others had to wait until his return in January.

The Paulings return trip through the East Coast had not been finalized either. Gilrane made reservations in New York and Philadelphia while also coordinating Pauling’s wardrobe for the celebrations that would take place upon his return. She wrote to Samuel Rubin, President of the American-Israel Cultural Foundation, that Pauling “shall have his smoking jacket as well as his tails, but he will wear whatever you think is appropriate for the evening.”

Pauling also benefited from the help of friends in Norway. Otto Bastiansen, a Norwegian physicist and chemist, worked out much of Pauling’s Scandinavian itinerary, deciding where he would lecture and with whom he would meet. Since the entire Pauling family, including the children’s spouses, was coming, Bastiansen had to work out how they might be involved in activities as well. The Paulings’ first event happened almost as soon as they landed in Oslo on Sunday, December 8th. Ignored by the U.S. embassy or any other official representative from his home country, Pauling was welcomed at a private party held at the home of Marie Lous-Mohr, a Norwegian Holocaust survivor and peace activist who had also helped to arrange Pauling’s schedule.

On December 9th, the day before the Peace Prize ceremonies, the Paulings had lunch with friends and colleagues from Norway at the Hotel Continental, where they were staying. Afterward Linus and Ava Helen, together with two of their sons, Peter and Linus Jr., participated in a press conference. The event focused mostly on the man of the hour, who was very optimistic about the significance of receiving the Nobel Peace Prize and expressed gratitude toward the many people who worked in the peace movement. The Associated Press quoted Pauling as stating,

I think awarding me the prize will mean great encouragement to the peace workers everywhere, but particularly in the United States, where there have been so many attacks upon the peace workers… For some time it has been regarded as improper there to talk about these things. I think this is about the best thing that could happen for the movement.

As the world was still mourning the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Pauling said that Kennedy’s “attitude” helped make peace activism acceptable in the United States. Pauling steered away from any criticisms of Kennedy, as one reporter prodded Pauling about his opinion of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. At the time, Pauling had been extremely critical, calling Kennedy’s threat of military action against Russia “horrifying” as it could easily lead to the use of nuclear weapons. Regardless, Pauling told the press in Oslo that the situation “taught the lesson to the world, that the existence of nuclear weapons is a peril to the human race.”

The next day, Pauling would receive the Nobel Peace Prize for helping alert the world to that peril.


1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Though nearly a quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease, the figure is substantially lower today than it was a century ago. Among the innovations that have helped reduce that burden was the solution of the chemical structure of an antibody in 1961. With this discovery, Rockefeller University alumnus Gerald M. Edelman uncovered our own natural weapon against foreign pathogens, shedding new light on one of the darkest corners of human mortality. For this achievement, he received the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Scientists had understood since the turn of the 20th century that antibodies exist to fight off foreign substances that enter the body, but how they recognize the enormous number of bacteria, toxins and other antigens encountered during a lifetime was a mystery until the work of Dr. Edelman and English biochemist Rodney Porter, with whom he shared the 1972 Nobel Prize. Antibodies are an exceptionally diverse class of large, complex molecules, making their study problematic. Reasoning that the best way to learn how something is made is often to take it apart, and hypothesizing that antibodies are made of separate amino acid chains, Dr. Edelman focused his graduate work in Henry G. Kunkel’s Rockefeller laboratory on devising methods to split apart an immunoglobulin into its constituent chains.

In 1961, Dr. Edelman succeeded in splitting immunoglobulin G — one of the more commonly studied antibodies found in human blood — by severing the sulphide bonds that hold the molecule together. He thus demonstrated that immunoglobulins are made up of more than 1,300 amino acids in four chains: two identical “light” chains (polypeptides of 211 to 217 amino acids each) and two identical “heavy” chains (of 450 to 550 amino acids each). Individually the chains are inactive, but when folded into their proper structure, they create a pocket capable of catching an antigen for binding. He also identified the exact spots on those chains that bind to antigens.

Dr. Edelman spent the next several years working backward to recreate a model of the principal antibody molecule, which he achieved in 1969. During that time, he also hypothesized — and was later proven correct — that the vast diversification exhibited by antibodies is an example of the body turning a developmental flaw into an advantage. When cells divide, miniscule errors in transcription often occur, leading to the development of proteins with differences that in the immune system amount to a system of “strength through diversity.” Working independently, Drs. Edelman and Porter also succeeded in mapping all 1,300 amino acids present in certain myelomas — cancers specific to plasma cells, which produce immunoglobulins.

The direct implications of Dr. Edelman’s discoveries, however, were even more far reaching. As a result of his work, mammalian antibodies are now classified into five different isotypes, based on the five known heavy chain types, each of which is responsible for recognizing a different class of antigen. This knowledge has increased diagnostic capabilities exponentially, as the detection of particular antibodies is a commonly used method for pinpointing disease. Therapeutic potential has also advanced because of his work. Dr. Edelman used his discovery to develop strategies to prevent organ rejection in transplantations, and the use of synthetic antibodies is applied in the treatment of numerous immune-deficient diseases.



Comments:

  1. Agrican

    very real

  2. Jack

    I think, what is it - a false way. And from it it is necessary to turn off.

  3. Christofferson

    I see, thank you for your help in this matter.

  4. Aeneas

    Christmas trees, stupid article

  5. Heskovizenako

    ha, cool!

  6. Roddrick

    the brilliant idea

  7. Zum

    What a good question



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